Pretty Bird Woman House: Let’s Unbury some Hearts

( – promoted by navajo)

Herstories on the issue of violence against women

A Cheyenne proverb states, “A nation is not conquered until the hearts of its women are on the ground. Then it is done, no matter how brave its warriors or how strong its weapons.” Our hearts are not on the ground. Our feet are. And we are moving forward.

A travesty to the true spirit of justice is taking place on the Standing Rock Reservation that covers North and South Dakota. Predominantly white male rapists are sexually assaulting American Indian women and getting away with inadequate consequences or no consequences whatsoever.

Show me a rapist of an American Indian woman and I’ll show you an upstanding member of society. That’s what the Major said about a man who plead guilty to raping an American Indian woman. Maybe the thieves and vandals who have caused property damage so severe that Pretty Bird Woman House had to close its doors for now are “upstanding citizens” as well.

Thieves have stolen food and a television set from Pretty Bird Woman House. The very walls were smashed through to break inside or destroy it; then, it was set on fire.

(Not Pretty Bird Woman House)
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What if this occurred in a Caucasian controlled city or county? Allow me to share a story from my personal experience.

I left a gig with horn and stand in hand; I was walking to the parking garage. I witnessed a couple fighting when I got to the elevator. “A little unusual, but none of my business,” I thought. However, next the man called his girlfriend a slut and slammed her up against the wall. It became my business. While three others were standing around, wondering if they should call 911, I said “Stop” firmly to him. Ignoring me, he became more violent; so, I commanded her to get out of the elevator.  One of the others was calling 911 at that point. She did not get out of the elevator, “My keys are in his truck.” He lowered his head and pushed his hand towards me for me to back off; he couldn’t look me in the eye. I told her to get out again. The doors closed.

I told the others with cell phones to follow me up the stairs and to be calling 911. They bailed. I went to the second floor and waited. Nothing. I didn’t know which floor they went to, “Battered wife syndrome” I thought as I went down the stairs and found a police officer on the street. I told him what happened and he went into the parking garage to investigate. That is the difference between what happens on the Standing Rock Reservation and a Caucasian controlled city or county – justice.

Source

In 1978, the Supreme Court ruled in Oliphant v. the Suquamish Indian Tribe that tribal governments have no criminal jurisdiction over non-Indians. When a crime is committed, tribal police and their non-Indian counterparts must hash out whether the suspect is Indian or not.

I have two primary reasons why I did what I did. The first one is that violence against women doesn’t happen in front of me; I won’t allow it. The second one is that that woman, whatever her name, is my cousin. She is my relative.

Here is a CHIPIN CAMPAIGN from PiledHigherandDeeper, who asked me to do this here.

Please make a donation at the CHIPIN CAMPAIGN for the Pretty Bird Woman House to help keep the hearts of the women off the ground.

Source

“I prefer to characterize rape simply as a form of torture.  Like the torturer, the rapist is motivated by the urge to dominate, humiliate, and destroy his victim.  Like a torturer, he does so by using the most intimate acts available to humans — sexual ones.”

Helen Benedict, Virgin or Vamp, 1992

No Centennial for Indian Territory

( – promoted by navajo)

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Source

“Brand new state, Brand new state, gonna treat you great!
Gonna give you barley, carrots and pertaters,
Pasture fer the cattle, Spinach and Termayters!
Flowers on the prairie where the June bugs zoom,
Plen’y of air and plen’y of room,
Plen’y of room to swing a rope!
Plen’y of heart and plen’y of hope!

Source

“The whole management of Indians has been abnormal . . . Everything is controlled by arbitrary laws and regulations, and not by moral, social, or economic principles.”

All of the tribes experienced a Trail of Tears due to the forced relocations; some were more or less severe. However, regardless of their differing severity, the forced relocations were all part of the U.S. extermination policy, or genocide, to solve their “Indian Problem.” The “problem” in Indian Territory was that the tribes who were forced to relocate under conditions that significantly reduced their population through extermination or starvation, some in harsh winter conditions, was that they survived the forced relocations at all. Hence, a “solution” was needed to insure white domination in Indian Territory. Henry Dawes and his Dawes Act fueled by racism, denial of joint statehood, and a cruel “wedding” fusing Indian Territory with the State of Oklahoma all contributed to Oklahoma’s Statehood through the elimination of many tribal lands and the great diminishment or total elimination of tribal political influence.

The white supremist attitudes of Henry Dawes, author of the Dawes Act and which led to the Allotment Era, was paramount in shifting land ownership from whole tribes to the sole individual.

Kill the Indian, Save the Man

Massachusetts Senator Henry Dawes, convinced that the white man’s ways were superior, pooh-poohed the idea of communal property, although he did express sympathy for the Natives. “The common field is the seat of barbarism, while the separate farm is the door to civilization,” he said. Dawes explained that selfishness was the root of advanced civilization, and he could not understand why the Indians were not motivated to possess and achieve more than their neighbors.

The white supremist attitudes of Dawes was reflected in whites prior to the Allotment Era that Dawes formally initiated.

The Indians Are
Getting Uppity

Berthrong describes the attitudes of the whites who overwhelmed the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservation subsequent to allotment:

White-Indian relations after the opening of the Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation were tragic. Deep prejudice often bordering on racism marked whites’ attitudes toward their Indian neighbors…If the Indians had possessed more economic potential, skills, and incentives to acquire additional or replacement property, the losses they suffered through fraud and theft would not have been so severe or irremediable. As it was, the discrimination, the loss of property, and the contempt in which the Indian was held by farmers and ranchers made it impossible for many of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes to follow the ‘white man’s road.’ (Berthrong, p.207)

Guy Dull Knife Jr. recalls his boyhood impression of whites outside the reservation borders: “He remembered the dirty looks, the waiting for whites to enter first, the standing in line, others cutting in front of them, the occasional cursing, clerks tailing him up and down the aisles and the signs that said ‘No Dogs or Indians Allowed’.” (Starita, p.326)

Dawes’s anti Indian sentiment bled over into the legislation he created, the notorious Dawes Act. The facts that it authorized the president, Roosevelt at the time, to twist tribal land ownership into individual land ownership if the land was deemed “advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes” when Oklahoma’s primary assets were farming and agriculture prior to its statehood, were by no means innocent and coincidental. To the contrary, it was divide and conquer in retrospect. 

Divide –

(Underline mine)

Source

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows:

Source

In addition, the law severely reduced Indian holdings; after all individual allocations had been made, the extensive lands remaining were declared surplus and opened for sale to non-Indians. In 1887, the tribes had owned about 138 million acres; by 1900 the total acreage in Indian hands had fallen to 78 million.

– and conquer.

As Oklahoma sought statehood the U.S. government again divided reservation lands to sell to white settlers, leaving just a small parcel for reservation land.

The Merriam Report: A Look At “Real” Life

The report found many contributing factors, one of the major ones being the Allotment Policy.  In the Merriam Report, it was also said that
Not accompanied by adequate instruction in the use of property, it has largely failed in the accomplishment of what was expected of it.  It has resulted in much loss of land and an enormous increase in the details of administration without a compensating advance in the economic ability of the Indians…it almost seeded as if the government assumed that some magic in individual ownership of property would in itself prove an educational civilizing factor, but unfortunately this policy had for the most part operated in the opposite direction.  Individual ownership in many instances permitted Indians to sell their allotment and to live for a time on the unearned income resulting from the sale.(2)

100 Years in the Land of the Red Man

“When the Allotment Era came into being, it changed every perspective we had on land–it went from the control of the tribe to the control of the individual,” he explained.

Those individuals, Jones recounted, were illegally taxed and many lost their land by their failure to pay those taxes, largely because their grasp of the new and foreign concept of individual private land ownership didn’t quite match the speed of the government’s enforcement of its imposed tax policy.

Continuing, as the Iroquois Confederacy helped to shape American Democracy on a national level, the Sequoyah Constitution helped to shape the Oklahoma Constitution on a state level.

Source

No historian can properly review the provisions of the Oklahoma Constitution without considering the Sequoyah Convention which convened at Muskogee in 1905; for some of the most important provisions of the Constitution derived their inspiration from the Sequoyah Constitution, notably: Article nine on Corporations, the method of Legislative apportionment, the Great Seal, less than a unanimous verdict of Jurors in trials of civil causes, compulsory teaching of Agriculture and Domestic Arts in the public schools, the names of many Counties in old Indian Territory, et cetera.

As Vice-President of the Sequoyah Convention of 1905 and as President of the Guthrie Constitutional Convention of 1906, I witnessed some facts of historical value, hitherto not given publication.

-huge snip –

“You know many people in Oklahoma Territory and I wish you would remember this, ‘The politicians of Oklahoma City and Guthrie will try to dominate the convention and shut out the Indian Territory along with western Oklahoma. When statehood comes, remember to keep “tab” on the delegates elected and for some good man over there, not allied with the machine, for president of the Convention’.” To which I agreed.

But that wasn’t part of the “solution,” Roosevelt squelched Indian Territory’s attempts at having joint statehood with Oklahoma. As the result, there is no Centennial for Indian Territory.

ENABLING ACT (1906)

After the introduction of a bill for admitting Indian Territory as the State of Sequoyah sank in Congress in December 1905-January 1906, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt recommended joint statehood.

What was part of the “solution” was a cruel “wedding” between Indian Territory and the State of Oklahoma simultaneously with Oklahoma’s admittance into statehood.

Source

Rev. Dodson:
Representing the Indian Territory is Mrs. Anna Bennett of Muskogee. 

(Durant presents Mrs. Bennett to Jones, bows, and steps back.)

Mrs. Bennett:
I will.  And to you I present my hand and my fortunes, convinced that  your love is genuine and sincere.

Dodson:
Do you, Mr. Oklahoma Territory, take this woman to be your lawfully  wedded wife, to have and to hold, from this day forth, in union as the  State of Oklahoma?
 

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To bring this to a close, all of the tribes experienced a Trail of Tears due to the forced relocations; some were more or less severe. However, the tears did not end with the forced relocations. The cruel mock wedding ceremony caused tears; being shut out of the democratic process caused more tears after the denial of duel joint statehood, as did the Dawes Act and all the racism that accompanied it. Simultaneously, the Indian Boarding Schools were working their “solution,” which would continue until approximately 1970, while the forced sterilizations would work their “solution” and end in the mid 1970’s. No Indian, no “problem” for the whites who cut the Indians out of life, democracy, or both.

Pledge: Become A Modern Day Warrior For Indigenous Rights (Updated & Edited)


NOT VANISHED, JUST OVER-LOOKED

“Viewing Native Americans as a people of the past is the most accessible, convenient perception for Americans.  While I believe it is important to create images that are historically, culturally correct and support the preservation of culture, I also believe it is imperative that a modern, contemporary representation of Native culture needs to surface in the mainstream.

A web of land theft in a “a new kind of Indian war” is taking place. Non Indians’ racism and genocide denial, who engage in attempting to steal tribal sovereignty through the court system, ignore an obvious question. Where would they meet to practice their religion, a white Caucasian word, if their churches were stolen, condemned, and being used to drill for oil and uranium? The “spirit” seems to be this: “What one group calls genocide, another group may call progress.” Let’s try to get an overview of the “progress” in the web of land theft in the “New kind of Indian war.”


August 26th  through the 29th was the SYMPOSIUM ON THE SETTLEMENT OF INDIAN RESERVED WATER RIGHTS CLAIMS (a good overview is here).

I am speculating, but I think that one reason for the Symposium on the Settlement of Indian Reserved Water Rights Claims was because of this:

Radiation Warning Signs Placed on Cheyenne River

Red Shirt Village — Residents of Red Shirt village on the northwest corner of the Pine Ridge Reservation have put up signs warning people of the high nuclear radiation levels found in the Cheyenne River.

Which, I assume in part resulted in this resolution being made.


Defenders of the Black Hills: a group of volunteers without racial or tribal boundaries working to ensure that the United States government upholds the Fort Laramie Treaties of 1851 and 1868.

NOW, THEREFORE BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED,
the GPTCA affirms that any person, agency or entity including federal, state, and county governments, or corporations, businesses or companies who shall cause any nuclear pollution, or contamination to enter the confines of the Indian Reservation Homelands should be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law, and

NOW, BE IT FINALLY RESOLVED,
the Great Plains Tribal Chairman’s Association calls upon all other Tribes and Indian Nations to join with us to protect our Reservation Homelands, to ensure that no damage will come to the people, the culture, the environment including the air and water and economy of the Tribes of the Great Plains because of uranium mining or other processing of contaminants in the region of the Great Plains Region.

Furthermore, I assume that this was created to combat the devastating affects of land theft and pollution in the above case, at the very least:


The Tribal Supreme Court Project is part of the Tribal Sovereignty Protection Initiative and is staffed by the Native American Rights Fund (NARF) and the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI). The Project was formed in 2001 in response to a series of U.S. Supreme Court cases that negatively affected tribal sovereignty.

This information at the international level, beginning with the Cobo Report, is crucial to understand in conjunction with all the above.

Chapter 6: International developments in the recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples

The Cobo report, as it is commonly known, was prepared over the next decade. It was submitted to the Sub-Commission in 24 instalments between 1981 and 1984 with its conclusions and final recommendations compiled in a consolidated volume in 1987. Underpinning the report’s detailed conclusions and recommendations is the recognition that, despite the great diversity of their cultures and systems, Indigenous peoples throughout the world have common experiences of discrimination, oppression and exploitation.

– snip –

– recognition that Indigenous peoples and nations are subjects of international law and must be included within international law processes;

– recognition of Indigenous peoples’ special relationship to land and its integral link to their beliefs, customs, traditions and cultures and for efforts to be taken to maintain or restore that relationship;

– the ratification and implementation by States of international human rights treaties such as those on genocide, anti-slavery, racial discrimination, civil and political, and economic, social and cultural rights; and

– the establishment of a working group on Indigenous peoples at the United Nations under the Sub-Commission.[12]


The chairperson altered this, yet some were still against it (emphasis & underline mine).

SPEAKERS CALL FOR INCREASED INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF INDIGENOUS RIGHTS,

Recognizing that most of the world’s remaining natural resources — minerals, freshwater, potential energy sources and more — are found within indigenous peoples’ territories, the sixth annual session of the Permanent Forum has brought indigenous groups together with representatives of Governments, intergovernmental organizations and United Nations agencies to state their views, voice concerns and suggest solutions regarding their lands, territories and natural resources.

We know how that went, don’t we?

It falied in the U.S.

Here is more information about it.

Since we’re talking about a web of land theft and “a new kind of Indian war,” I’m going to make this ending short and sweet about something more well known. I don’t agree with the Chief of the Cherokee Nation in regards to the freedman, but I really don’t agree with Diane Watson. Let me say why by posing a question which I believe reveals Watson’s intent in light of the fact that her “proposal” has so much support, while vital issues as Indian Health Care have failed. My question is based completely upon my own speculation.

Who gets the casinos after the Cherokee lose the right to use them?
Maybe it will be the Cheyenne State of Oklahoma and the U.S. Government. Should the world end their entire relationship with the U.S. based solely on the current sitting president? Right, please sign the pledge below.

Click on: Take A Stand! Click Here!

We “will accept nothing less than the U.S. government keeping the promises made to Native Americans.”

Cobell historical accounting trial wraps up

After just 10 full days of testimony, the trial into the Indian trust fund historical accounting concluded in Washington, D.C., on Thursday.

Judge James Robertson, who was assigned the case last December, called the trial in April. At the time, he said it would “continue as long as necessary,” indicating a potentially long haul that could rival prior proceedings in the 11-year-old case.

Those expectations quickly faded as Robertson, throughout the trial, urged the government and the Cobell plaintiffs to keep their presentations short and to the point. It also helped that the judge decided not to visit the Interior Department’s Indian records repository in Kansas as he earlier envisioned.

The Bush administration wants Robertson to keep his hands off the case so that the Interior Department can finish its historical accounting. The latest plan, issued in May, calls for the project to be finished by the end of 2011.

[…]

The Cobell plaintiffs want Robertson to keep a close eye on Interior. They say it’s impossible for the historical accounting to be complete due to missing records, inaccurate data and destroyed documents.

[…]

According to his earlier court order, Robertson plans to determine whether the accounting plan satisfies fiduciary trust standards and whether the accounting was “unreasonably” delayed. […]

Robertson also wants to determine whether the government has cured the breaches of trust that were first identified by Judge Royce Lamberth back in December 1999. The D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld that ruling in February 2001.

But Robertson has said he is guided by some overarching principles that were more recently articulated by the D.C. Circuit. One ruling blocks his court from dictating the details of the government’s plans and another requires him to be mindful of the funding limits imposed by Congress.

more…
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Trial Transcripts:
Day
1 AM
| Day 1 PM | Day 2 AM | Day 2 PM | Day 3 AM | Day 3 PM | Day 4 AM | Day 4 PM | Day 5 AM | Day 5 PM | Day 6 AM | Day 6 PM | Day 7 AM | Day 7 PM | Day 8 AM | Day 8 PM | Day 9 AM | Day 9 PM

Bush blasts Native Hawaiian self-determination bill

The White House on Monday slammed a bill to extend self-determination to Native Hawaiians, calling it divisive and unconstitutional.

The Bush administration has long opposed efforts to organize a Native Hawaiian governing entity. But the statement from the Office of Management and Budget marked first time the White House put its objections into writing.

[…]

The statement comes on the eve of consideration of H.R.505, the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act. The House is set to debate the measure on Wednesday.

Most of Hawaii’s politicians — Republicans and Democrats — support the bill.[…]

The House previously voted in favor of Native Hawaiians in late 2000, before President Bush took office. But due to objections from the administration, the current measure has been held up by conservative Republicans.

[…]

The opposition is based largely on constitutional concerns. Republicans say the bill would create a race-based government that is not open to people of all ethnic backgrounds.

[…]

“Given the substantial historical and cultural differences between Native Hawaiians as a group and members of federally recognized Indian tribes, the administration believes that tribal recognition is inappropriate and unwise for Native Hawaiians and would raise serious constitutional concerns,” the statement said.

Until the release of the statement, opposition was coming from the Department of Justice. Since Bush took office in 2001, officials there have been quietly questioning a slew of Native Hawaiian programs.

Earlier this year, the campaign was extended to urban Indians, lineal Indian descendants and certain Alaska Natives. A DOJ official told the Senate Indian Affairs Committee that providing health care to these groups of people would be unconstitutional.

“Under the Supreme Court’s decisions, there is a substantial likelihood that legislation providing special benefits to individuals of Indian or Alaska Native descent based on something other than membership or equivalent affiliation with a federally recognized tribe would be regarded by the courts as a racial classification,” Frederick Beckner III, a deputy assistant general at DOJ, said at a March 8 hearing.

http://www.indianz.c…

October 24: The House debated a rule that would open H.R.505 to debate. A vote was called around 12:38pm on the rule.

The rule passed. Debate to last one hour on H.R.505 began around 1:15pm.

After one hour of debate, Rep. Jeff Flake (R-Arizona) offered a motion to recommit in order to make amendments that would purportedly address constitutional, civil rights and other legal concerns regarding a Native Hawaiian governing entity.

At 2:49pm, the motion to recommit failed by a recorded vote.

The House is now voting on the bill. It passed by a 261-153 vote around 3:04pm

Statement of Administration Policy:
H.R. 505 – Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2007 (October 22, 2007)

Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act::
H.R.505 | S.310

Relevant Links:
Office of Hawaiian Affairs – http://www.oha.org
Native Hawaiian Recognition – http://www.nativehawaiians.com

Related Stories:
Appeals court revives Native Hawaiian trust lawsuit (8/22)
Spin Zone: Debate Native Hawaiian recognition (8/16)
Opinion: Native Hawaiian entity ripe for corruption (06/07)
Native Hawaiian school settles admission lawsuit (05/15)
Senate Indian Affairs Committee approves four bills (05/11)
Senate Indian Affairs Committee meeting (05/10)
Bush administration opposes Native Hawaiian bill (05/04)
Senate hearing on Native Hawaiian recognition (5/3)
Democrats pass Native Hawaiian bill on second try (03/29)
House committee to take up Native Hawaiian bill (03/05)
Opinion: The misrecognition of ‘Native’ Hawaiians (2/28)
Opinion: Attack on Hawaiians directed at tribes (2/16)
Opinion: Native Hawaiian a quirk in federal law? (2/14)
9th Circuit rejects Native Hawaiian funding case (2/12)
Divided court upholds Native school admissions policy (12/06)
Editorial: Another shot for Native Hawaiians (11/14)
Column: Native Hawaiian advocates weigh Plan B (07/11)
9th Circuit to hear Native Hawaiian school case (06/20)
Opinion: Native Hawaiian debate far from over (6/16)
Republicans traded votes for Native Hawaiian bill (6/14)
Some hope for Native Hawaiians in court case (6/13)
John Fund: Defeat for Sen. Akaka on Hawaiians (6/12)
Native Hawaiian debate ends in Senate (6/8)
Opinion: Native Hawaiian recognition ‘racist’ (6/7)
Opinion: Native Hawaiians have it better than Indians (6/6)
Commentary: GOP death wish on Native Hawaiians (6/6)
Bob Novak: GOPs lobby for Hawaiian Indians (6/5)
John Fund: A Native race-based government (6/5)
WSJ: Native Hawaiian recognition an ugly act (6/2)
Editorial: Unconstitutional Native Hawaiian bill (6/1)
Opinion: GOP traitors on Hawaiian recognition (5/31)
Sen. McCain voted against Hawaiian apology (5/29)
Editorial: Oppose Native Hawaiian recognition (5/24)
Hawaii governor lobbies for Native recognition (5/18)
Native Hawaiian recognition bill heads for debate (5/17)
Appeals court to rehear Native Hawaiian school case (02/23)
Miers cited Native Hawaiian work before withdrawing (10/28)
Bush questions legality of Native Hawaiian bill (09/28)
Opinion: ‘Racist’ Hawaiian recognition bill (9/22)
Roberts mentions Indian law work on final day (9/19)
Hawaii governor lobbies Senate on Hawaiian recognition (9/8)
Native Hawaiian work an issue for Roberts (9/7)
Linda Chavez: GOP panders on Native Hawaiian bill (9/1)
Native Hawaiian bill set for debate in Senate (8/29)
Opinion: GOP policy rejects Native Hawaiians (08/26)
Amendments in the works for Native Hawaiian bill (8/25)
Slade Gorton: Don’t recognize Native Hawaiians (08/19)
Letter: Native Hawaiians are indigenous too (08/08)
Editorial: Native Hawaiians never had a government (8/4)
Appeals court blocks Native Hawaiian school policy (08/03)
Editorial: Native Hawaiian bill is un-American (07/21)
Debate on Native Hawaiian bill delayed in Senate (7/20)
Bush names John G. Roberts to U.S. Supreme Court (07/20)
House, Senate hearings on housing, land dispute (7/18)
Native Hawaiian bill set for vote on Senate floor (7/18)
Opinion: Native Hawaiian bill sets bad precedent (7/18)
Commentary: Bill creates ‘race-based’ government (07/07)
Novak: Native Hawaiian bill creates new ‘Indians’ (7/5)
Column: Bill creates ‘tribe’ of Native Hawaiians (6/23)
High court won’t take on Native Hawaiian recognition (06/14)
Panel approves Native Hawaiian, NAGPRA changes (03/10)
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DOI attorney faults BIA office in Palm Springs

An Interior Department attorney who has been locked out of his office at the Bureau of Indian Affairs accused the agency on Tuesday of failing to account for millions of dollars in trust funds.

After a stint in Oklahoma, field solicitor Robert McCarthy went to work for the BIA in Palm Springs, California, over three years ago. He said he quickly learned that the agency didn’t have a way to track more than $30 million in annual lease payments owed to members of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians.

Even when a payment was made, the BIA didn’t always pass it on to the beneficiary, McCarthy testified. In one case, the BIA kept a trust payment of $130,000 in a “special deposit account” for over 25 years because the agency didn’t know whose money it was.

Despite the apparent mismanagement, the BIA made money off of Agua Caliente landowners. “In virtually every case for virtually every type of administrative action,” the agency charged a fee for its services, McCarthy said.

For example, a fee of 1 percent was applied to every single land sale, McCarthy said. In Palm Springs — where real estate is big business — this amounted to payments to the BIA that were as high as $60,000, according to one document entered into evidence.

But federal regulations limit fees for land sales to $22.50, McCarthy said. The regulations also cap fees for leases at $500, though that apparently wasn’t followed in Palm Springs.

Similar problems were identified in a 1992 audit by the Interior Department’s Inspector General. The report recommended the BIA add a field solicitor to the Palm Springs office and develop a system to ensure Agua Caliente landowners were getting paid fair market value and that their leases were being enforced.

A computer system was purchased to track the leases, but McCarthy said he found it locked up in a back office and that it had never been used.

The situation prompted McCarthy to warn his superiors in the Solicitor’s Office, the Inspector General and eventually Jim Cason — the associate deputy secretary at DOI who was in charge of the BIA at the time — about the problems in Palm Springs. “I was kicked out of my office after I made my disclosures,” McCarthy told Judge James Robertson, who wondered why the solicitor was working from home — with pay — rather than at the BIA office.

“Everyone stopped talking to me,” McCarthy added. “I was shunned.”

And when McCarthy informed his superiors that he was going to testify in the Cobell trial, he was told he was going to be fired for allegedly disclosing confidential trust data to the media. The Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility group is defending McCarthy, who has filed appeals over his employment status.

more…
http://www.indianz.c…

Trial Transcripts:
Day 1 AM | Day 1 PM | Day 2 AM | Day 2 PM | Day 3 AM | Day 3 PM | Day 4 AM | Day 4 PM | Day 5 AM | Day 5 PM | Day 6 AM | Day 6 PM |Day 7 AM |Day 7 PM |Day 8 AM

Inspector General Audit:
Indian Trust Investigative Review (July 2007)

Google Map:
Agua Caliente Lands in Palm Springs

Relevant Links:
Indian Trust: Cobell v. Kempthorne – http://www.indiantrust.com
Cobell v. Norton, Department of Justice – http://www.usdoj.gov/civil/cases/cobell/index.htm

Related Stories:
Interior attorney set to testify in Cobell case(10/22)
Interior says Cobell suit not worth billions (10/15)
Cason wraps up testimony in trust case (10/12)
Cobell accounting trial opens in DC (10/11)
Cobell historical accounting trial starts in DC (10/10)
CFO Magazine: The Indian trust fund accounting (10/5)
Cobell historical accounting trial starts October 10 (10/1)
BIA agency lacks accounting for millions in trust (09/25)
Audit finds Indian trust management problems (9/24)
Cobell: Upcoming trial tackles important issues (09/19)
Interior attorney to testify at upcoming Cobell trial (9/18)
DOI won’t release trust data in Cobell case (9/11)
Interior attorney accused of disclosing trust data (08/29)
Judge opens electronic data to Cobell plaintiffs (07/10)
Another Cobell historical accounting hearing (7/9)
Judge expresses views on Indian trust fund accounting (06/19)
Hearing on Cobell historical accounting trial (6/18)
Cobell prepares for court battle on accounting (5/30)
Cobell prepares for historical accounting trial (5/18)
Judge prods DOI on Indian trust fund accounting (5/15)
First status conference for Cobell accounting trial (5/14)
Cobell status conference pushed back to May 14 (05/02)
Attorney calls $7B Cobell offer pennies on dollar (4/24)
Cobell heads to landmark accounting trial (4/23)
Judge orders Cobell accounting trial for October 10 (4/20)
Jodi Rave: Cobell calls for accountability (4/12)
BIA office in Palm Springs criticized by landowners (4/11)
BIA office in Palm Springs under investigation (4/10)

SANI-T gets $500,000 to fight poverty

The Society for the Advancement of Native Interests-Today, commonly called SANI-T, has received a $500,000 grant from the Northwest Area Foundation in St. Paul, Minn.

The one-year grant will be used to support SANI-T initiatives aimed at reducing poverty among urban Native American populations. A portion will also be used to expand SANI-T’s ability to serve the community.

The grant will allow SANI-T to focus on a youth program and work-force program based on the medicine wheel concept of “returning to the center” (Cokata gli Najin) for healing. Divided into quadrants, the medicine wheel focuses on four areas of the individual — physical, mental, spiritual and social — each one reinforcing the other.

More….
http://www.rapidcity…

Going Home

I needed something to help me feel good this morning.  I’ve been in TX for over a month now and I really am ready to go home as well.  It will be a while longer before I can, but it was good to remember these guys going home.

GOING HOME

  The Catalina Island Conservancy sends the last of the American Buffalo (Bison) home to the Lakota Indians.

Native American Suicide

( – promoted by navajo)

(Navajo invited me to cross post this from Daily Kos.)

A lot of people are aware of the many abject problems Native American’s face- rampant poverty, diabetes, environmental degradation to name a few. The current social  problems are not isolated from the past several hundred years of colonalism & imperialism, or the United States Government legacy of broken treaties and exploiting sacred land. One of the dark marks of the spiritual scar on Native America, is suicide amongst Native American youth.

What do you call the thing that has lead many young and dissaffected Native Americans to suicide? Is the word hopelessness? In 2006 on the Rosebud Indian reservation in South Dakota there were three suicides and 197 attempts. In 2007 there have been three suicides and over 144 attempts.

Earlier this year two suicides included a young man and a young woman. The

young man, 19 years old, played varsity football and basketball at Todd County High School. He was admired across the reservation, in that way small towns follow and celebrate their teenage athletes. The girl, weeks shy of her 14th birthday, made straight A’s at Todd County Middle School, played volleyball and basketball and led a traditional Lakota drum corps.

They hanged themselves

What is happening????

What is happening at Rosebud is all too common throughout Indian Country. American Indian and Alaska Native youth 15 to 24 years old are committing suicide at a rate more than three times the national average for their age group of 13 per 100,000 people, according to the surgeon general. Often, one suicide leads to another. For these youths, suicide has become the second-leading cause of death (after accidents). In the Great Plains, the suicide rate among Indian youth is the worst: 10 times the national average.

Plains reservations are among the poorest places in the country, with all of poverty’s consequences. But the why of the suicide phenomenon – why American Indian youth, why the Great Plains – is complicated, experts say. The traumas Plains tribes have experienced over the last 175 years – massacres like the one at Wounded Knee, the decimation of their land and culture – are part of it.

“Very generally, adolescence is a time of trouble for all youths,” said Philip May, a professor of sociology at the University of New Mexico who has been studying suicide among American Indians for more than 35 years. “But in many American Indian communities, it’s compounded by limited opportunities, historical trauma and contemporary discrimination. The way the Lakota people and other Plains tribes have experienced history in the last 100 years has reduced the mental health factors that are available to them to cope.”

There are those who try shining light upon the darkness…
LaBradford Eagle Deer a teenager from Rosebud spoke to the UN today about poverty. It was the United Nations observation of the 20th International Day for the Eradication of Poverty.

The message on Eagle Deer’s stone reads: “Wherever human beings are condemned to live in extreme poverty, human rights are violated. To come together to ensure that these rights be respected is our solemn duty.”

On the Rosebud reservation, more than 46 percent of children younger than 17 live in poverty, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Center.

“Poverty creates a sense of hopelessness in a person,” LaBradford said. “And that is why suicide, addiction, dropout and crime rates are so high in poverty-stricken areas on our reservation, as well as other areas in the world.”

I am glad the UN gave him a chance to speak. I hope the world will listen.

Prison Camps & The Trail Of Tears (Part 2)

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October: For most Cherokee, the “Trail of Tears” begins.

http://s26.photobuck…

The Legend of the Cherokee Rose.
SOURCE

No better symbol exists of the pain and suffering of the Trail Where They Cried than the Cherokee Rose(pictured at top of page). The mothers of the Cherokee grieved so much that the chiefs prayed for a sign to lift the mother’s spirits and give them strength to care for their children. From that day forward, a beautiful new flower, a rose, grew wherever a mother’s tear fell to the ground. The rose is white, for the mother’s tears. It has a gold center, for the gold taken from the Cherokee lands, and seven leaves on each stem that represent the seven Cherokee clans that made the journey. To this day, the Cherokee Rose prospers along the route of the “Trail of Tears”.

TRAIL OF TEARS MAP

Military forts were already in place when theroads leading to those forts were being made more passable. Yet with no “removal treaty” known to Cherokees, settlers sarcastically made references to the military forts becoming the Cherokee’s new homes. Principle Chief John Ross was so alarmed by the forts, roads, and cruel teasing that he traveled all the way to Washington to express his grave concerns to Andrew Jackson.


Jackson hypocritically told them:

“You shall remain in your ancient land as long as grass grows and water runs.”


Principle Chief John Ross also tried desperately to escape the peril of Treaty of New Echota (the “removal treaty” which no true representative of the Cherokee Nation ever signed) for his people by sending a letter to the U.S. Senate and House, dated September 28, 1836:

 

Cherokee letter protesting the Treaty of New Etocha  from Chief John Ross, “To the Senate and House of Representatives”


LETTER

By the stipulations of this instrument, we are despoiled of our private possessions, the indefeasible property of individuals. We are stripped of every attribute of freedom and eligibility for legal self-defence. Our property may be plundered before our eyes; violence may be committed on our persons; even our lives may be taken away, and there is none to regard our complaints. We are denationalized; we are disfranchised. We are deprived of membership in the human family! We have neither land nor home, nor resting place that can be called our own. And this is effected by the provisions of a compact which assumes the venerated, the sacred appellation of treaty.


The U.S. Senate and House ignored his plea, and when 31 forts with adequate roads were in place to be transformed into prison, concentration, and death camps…the Cherokee received this letter from General Winfield Scott on May 10, 1838:

Address to the Cherokee Nation

SOURCE

“Cherokees! The President of the United States has sent me with a powerful army, to cause you, in obedience to the treaty of 1835 [the Treaty of New Echota], to join that part of your people who have already established in prosperity on the other side of the Mississippi. Unhappily, the two years which were allowed for the purpose, you have suffered to pass away without following, and without making any preparation to follow; and now, or by the time that this solemn address shall reach your distant settlements, the emigration must be commenced in haste, but I hope without disorder.


Being Forced by the U.S. military to the internment, concentration, or death camps:

http://www.powersour…

During the roundup intimidation and acts of cruelty at the hands of the troops, along with the theft and destruction of property by local residents, further alienated the Cherokees. Finally, Chief Ross appealed to President Van Buren to permit the Cherokees to oversee their own removal. Van Buren consented, and Ross and his brother Lewis administered the effort. The Cherokees were divided into 16 detachments of about 1,000 each.

“I saw the helpless Cherokees arrested and dragged from their homes, and driven at the bayonet point into the stockades. And in the chill of a drizzling rain on an October morning I saw them loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred and forty-five wagons and started toward the west….On the morning of November the 17th we encountered a terrific sleet and snow storm with freezing temperatures and from that day until we reached the end of the fateful journey on March the 26th 1839, the sufferings of the Cherokees were awful. The trail of the exiles was a trail of death. They had to sleep in the wagons and on the ground without fire. And I have known as many as twenty-two of them to die in one night of pneumonia due to ill treatment, cold and exposure…”

Private John G. Burnett

Captain Abraham McClellan’s Company,

2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry

Cherokee Indian Removal 1838-39


The military forts which were transformed into prison, concentration, and death camps were naturally armed with rifle towers and weaponry.1100 Cherokee were held as prisoners for almost 6 months at

FORT HETZEL with no restroom facilities and little nourishment.

SOURCE


STARVATIONStarvation is a severe reduction in vitamin, nutrient, and energy intake, and is the most extreme form of malnutrition. In humans, prolonged starvation (in excess of 1-2 months) causes permanent organ damage and will eventually result in death.


I would be tempted to say that the soldiers intentionally fed the Cherokee less in order to alleviate sanitation problems, if it weren’t for the facts that several Cherokee died in the internment camps and on the Trail of Tears, due to a murderous philosophy:

Extermination:


SOURCE

Eugenics is a new term for an old phenomena which asserts that Indian people should be exterminated because they are an inferior race of people. Jefferson’s suggestion to pursue the Indians to extermination fits well into the eugenistic vision. In David Stannard’s study American Holocaust, he writes: “had these same words been enunciated by a German leader in 1939, and directed at European Jews, they would be engraved in modern memory. Since they were uttered by one of America’s founding fathers, however…they conveniently have become lost to most historians in their insistent celebration of Jefferson’s wisdom and humanity.” Roosevelt feared that American upper classes were being replaced by the “unrestricted breeding” of inferior racial stocks, the “utterly shiftless”, and the “worthless.”

The soldiers must have wanted them dead, for transferring dead bodies out of the internment camps and disposing of them must have been more inconvenient, than giving a prisoner a shovel to cover up feces, while they also died of diseases.

Having given Wilma Mankiller’s book away last summer, I think an earlier paragraph from my last diary referred to what occurred at Fort New Echota (at least), because the Cherokee were supposed to have been given corn, I remember:

Fort New Echota (Fort Wool):

General Scott was shocked during a trip to inspect Fort New Echota when he overheard members of The Guard say that they would not be happy until all Cherokee were dead. As a result, he issued meticulous orders on conduct and allowed actions during the action. Troops were to treat tribal members “with kindness and humanity, free from every strain of violence.” Each Cherokee was to receive meat and flour or corn regardless of age. Scott’s orders were disobeyed by most troops that were not directly under his control.NEW ECHOTA


Here was the paragraph:


Source

The reader needs to understand that the Cherokee are a matriarchal society. Plainly put: the clan mother can trump the chief, women choose HER mate based on HIS cooking skills, and a man knew he was divorced if all his things were outside when he got home. So when the soldiers raped the women in the prison camps and on the Trail of Tears, they raped the tribe’s leaders as well. It was about taking away power. When the soldiers passed the women around like whiskey bottles raping them, it was about taking away power. When the soldiers scalped the women’s genitalia and wore their vaginas on their hats, it was about raping power to the most excruciating degree imaginable. I think it’s common knowledge how soldiers identified “leaders” in concentration camps and killed them, in order to keep the hostages under control. Still, one hundred and fifty-one years later nuns are raped and tortured…

Last of all, what happened in Fort Cumming may be ambiguous, but let us assume the “horrors that occurred inside the walls” were similar and at least equal to the extermination via internment camps and relocation against the Cherokees that occurred at the other forts, if not worse.


Fort Cumming:


Source

…Strangely missing from detailed physical description of the fort is any mention of the horrors that occurred inside the walls.


The 13 groups of 7 clans left in late August through late September of 1838, arriving January through March of the proceeding year.

http://www.rosecity….

They would lose their land 50 years later with the Land Run of 1889. While 12 groups traveled by wagon on land, Chief John Ross’s group traveled by water by boat.

Strong seasonal rain made the dirt roads too muddy to travel, their horses could not graze enough to be sustained, and hunting was scarce. The U.S. government gave them very little food to take. Even if they had been able to maintain their horses and wagons, they still would have had to walk across the frozen Mississippi or Ohio River, or be trapped in between them.


http://www.rosecity….

Looking across the river today, one can only imagine the suffering that was taking place more than 150 years ago.  Disrespectfully uprooted, homeless, they were embarking on a long journey in worn-out moccasins in the unforgiving dead of winter.  Enduring river crossings, ice floes and relentless winds, they had only a blanket for warmth – if they were lucky.  You imagine huddling around a fire, comforting your mother while she gets weaker and weaker … wondering, as she, when the suffering would end, and whether she would even live to see it.

I forgot that was why they walked with little or no shoes across jagged ice and snow for miles upon miles. You only get that at the museum, because there is a large approximately 6 x 4 picture of the Mississippi River in the winter covered in snow with jagged ice. I don’t know how as many survived as they did; nearly 2000 Cherokee died on the Trail Of Tears. The least number of reported total deaths is 4000, combining the deaths at the internment camps. The greatest estimated number is 8000.


http://www.rosecity….

Two-thirds of the ill-equipped Cherokees were trapped between the ice-bound Ohio and Mississippi Rivers during January. Although suffering from a cold, Quatie Ross, the Chief’s wife, gave her only blanket to a child.


“Long time we travel on way to new land. People feel bad when they leave Old Nation. Women cry and make sad wails, Children cry and many men cry…but they say nothing and just put heads down and keep on go towards West. Many days pass and people die very much.”

Recollections of a survivor

She died of pneumonia at Little Rock. Some drank stagnant water and succumbed to disease. One survivor told how his father got sick and died; then, his mother; then, one by one, his five brothers and sisters. “One each day. Then all are gone.”

The last things I remember about going through the exhibit are the stories constantly being told through audio with representative statues. Voices are heard over each other, yet surrounding voices are soft enough to hear the one you’re currently at with clarity.

SOURCE

The soldiers forced the Cherokees to abandon their dead at the side of the road.

Amidst the surrounding voices in the museum was the voice of a Cherokee survivor expressing how her grandfather died. Her grandfather had to sneak away for a couple days to hunt for food, so that she and others could live. The few soldiers wouldn’t notice, apparently. She tells how as a little girl, she knelt beside him as he died. What I recall the most was her saying, “Grandfather, Grandfather?” I think a soldier hit him, but I can’t exactly recall. She had to just keep walking.

An elder once told me how some still walk the Trail Of Tears, to remember and honor their ancestors by their graves of stones. “But it takes about 6 months to do it,” he said. I heard another elder tell a group about his family’s forced relocation, “When my relative’s relatives died, they buried them, picked up their pipes, and moved on.”


Now I know why I repeated that to myself over and over again.


Mitakuye Oyasin

(All my relations)

Detailed map:

TRAIL OF TEARS MAP #2

Remember that the small groups of Cherokee would forage for food as they proceeded, so the map is only a general representation of the routes.


http://s45.photobuck…

Cherokee Prayer:


Source

As I walk the trail of life

in the fear of the wind and rain,

grant O Great Spirit

that I may always walk

like a man

I’m a Wasichu, here’s where I come from

I was a believer in Native American ways from the time I was 6 years old, growing up in Germany, when I first read about Native American culture, via an author – Karl May – a German who had never even been to the United States, but who wrote books honoring Native Americans, against all popular “Indians/Savage” popular identification at that time.

No – he was not informed, he could not have been, he only once visited the continent – after having written his three novels – about the people he wrote about.  But he seemed to have had a dream/vision from abroad, a dream that the people being conquered overseas were being misjudged, under appreciated, and completely misunderstood.  He wrote his novels of Winnetou and Shatterhand on pure instinct, totally countering his current time’s “savage” and “inferior” common belief about American Indians.

I don’t know where his novels came from, but I believe that dreams and visions had a part in them.

In any case, I got a hold of his writings/visions of the people overseas, and it totally hooked my heart from then on, and the rest of my life really is based on it.

I was an abused child in a small farming town in Bavaria.  I found my joy and motherhood amongst meadows, creeks, fields and forests that surrounded my small farming town in Bavaria.  I was unsupervised, lacking supervision and family guidance. But i lived in a safe environment, where I could freely roam for miles in our rolling hills countryside, where wheat fields, brooks, streams, meadows, were still accessible to all of us without fences.  No farmer worried about someone walking on the paths between fields without fences to get to a place like a lake in the woods, a brook in a meadow, etc.

So I, an illegitimate child via my mother, adopted by a business man step-father (his wife had died years ago), came into this village of folks who didn’t want to accept my mom and me (I was an illegitimate child, and she had been a bar maid).

I was 5 years old, living in a small farming town in Bavaria.  My mother, a survivor of World War II, scarred on her scalp from Russian bullets, living on potatoes stolen from farmer’s fields, trying to keep my grandma (her mother) and my aunt Krista, her younger sister – alive during the war.  My grandpa had been called to war as a soldier with the German Army.  While he was off fighting in the Nazi Army, my grandma had another child, which died a few weeks after birth as its digestive system was all screwed up and no medical help was available. 
It was my mom – the eldest, who took care of our family (I wasn’t born then yet), during this time and the Berlin Bombings by the allies.

My mom described to me some of the scenes she lived through during that time:

I used to go out and steal potatoes from the farmers to keep us alive. We were all starving.  Then, when the
overhead allied bombings by the British and the Americans on Berlin began, we had to stop even those food raids.”
“When Berlin got bombed by the allies, we all tried to find refuge in the cellars (in Europe, cellars below the buildings were a given).  When the bombs hit the city, the water mains broke, the water poured into these cellars, and the heat of the bombs caused the waters in the cellars to heat up, eventually boiling the refugees to death.”

My grandfather, grandmother, mother, and aunt, had been NO participants in the Jewish persecution of this massacre – no more than we all stand by – unbelievingly – in what’s happening right now.  It just CAN’T be real.


I want to get to the journey that brought me to the US, but I need to call this one PART ONE of more to come.  It’s late night.  I’m tired, but I’m happy I got this many words out tonight.  It’s been heavy and hopeful in my heart.  I hope you all can hear me.
This whole story is really about how I came to love, appreciate, and work for Native American rights for all of my life.

And yes, I’m a Wasichu, but I’ve always skipped the fat.  Is there another word for a Wasichu who doesn’t like or take the fat?

Posted in Uncategorized

Christopher Columbus & His Crimes Against Humanity

( – promoted by navajo)

Christopher Columbus:

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The Christian Crusades had ended in 1291, the Black Death had been deliberately blamed on innocent Jews who said what their Christian torturers forced them to, that they poisoned water wells, causing the Black Death. Of course, the real cause was in the stomachs of fleas, not planetary alignment, earthquakes, or God’s Judgment. Nonetheless, the extermination of European Jews began in 1348 again, along with a key notorious origin of Manifest Destiny.

Source

But no sooner had the plague ceased than we saw the contrary . . . [People] gave themselves up to a more shameful and disordered life than they had led before…. Men thought that, by reason of the fewness of mankind, there should be abundance of all produce of the land; yet, on the contrary, by reason of men’s ingratitude, everything came to unwonted scarcity and remained long thus; nay, in certain countries . .

Christopher Columbus was born in 1451, barely over a century later in the city – state of Genoa, Italy after the newest Christian Campaign to exterminate the European Jews. Columbus educated himself, and his father was a wool merchant (3). Columbus was a map maker and a sailor in his forties; consequently, he knew that the world was round. What were three of the motivations that led him to set sail on August 3, 1492 on the Pinta, the Nina, and the Santa Maria from the “Southern Spanish port of Palos?” Greed for gold, capitalistic greed through the potential of wealth through the slave trade, and the religious beliefs of Apocalyptic Christianity were three primary motivations Columbus had for setting sail; consequently, which fueled genocide against tens of millions of Indigenous People.

One of Columbus’s motivations was greed for gold, which he acquired on the Gold Coast in the Portuguese colony (3).


Christopher Columbus: The Untold Story

Christopher Columbus:

“Gold is most excellent; gold is treasure, and he who possesses it does all he wishes to in this world.” [2]
 

Another of Columbus’s motives for making the journey was his capitalistic greed through the potential of wealth through the slave trade, which resulted in more and more slavery because of the desire for sugar and led to the atrocities of the Middle Passage.


Source

Sugar cane was the number one crop that produced the growth for Europe. It was brought to the New World from Spain by Christopher Columbus, later shipped to the rest of Europe. The growing sugar industry called for the usage of African slaves. Also the African slave labor and the plantations are what formed the Americas. The work that was performed on the plantations which, produced large quantities of sugar, created an even greater need for slaves, by the enslaved Africans brought to the Atlantic World by the Middle Passage.

Here is a map that provides a good overview.


The religious beliefs of Apocalyptic Christianity were yet another one of Columbus’ motivations for setting sail; consequently, it was the most illogical motivation he possessed. For his greed for gold could be coldly construed as a more practical reason, except for all of the Indigenous People he would in the future have to exterminate to get it, which he probally did not yet know of at the time. He had only ventured to the Gold Coast. His use of the slave trade for monetary gain was illogical enough, for it denied the very humanity of the African People and the Indigenous People that he would force into slavery; however, his beliefs regarding Apocalyptic Christianity were projected outwards towards the entire world.

Source

During those same long centuries they had further expressed their ruthless intolerance of all persons and thugs that were non-Christian by conducting pogroms against the Jews who lived among them and whom they regarded as the embodiment of the Antichrist imposing torture exile and mass destruction on those who refused to succumb to evangelical persuasion.

Columbus was possessed with the obsession that Christ would return only if the Gospel was spread far and wide. Apocalyptic Christianity taught him: that either a savior in human form would prepare the way for Christ to return in the midst of a war between good and evil and history would end; or, that after the earth suffers dire consequences, evil would increase while love would decrease, then Christ would return with the Final Judgment and end history; or, that a period of peace would precede the Final Judgment. During this “period of peace,” the Jews would be converted, while “the heathens would be either converted or annihilated.” I think the latter best reflects Columbus’s personal view of Apocalyptic Christianity. I will state why after a couple less known facts in order to set up a contrast.

The Indigenous People very well may have had a much better future then and history now if  Christopher Columbus had perished in the Atlantic on February 14, 1493. For the first European to land in America was Leif Ericson, a Viking seaman from Greenland (see Ericson). The ancient sagas give different accounts of this voyage made in the year 1000.

As for contacts of New World peoples with Europe, the sole early ones involved the Norse who occupied Greenland in very small numbers between A.D. 986 and about 1500. But these Norse visits had no discernible impact on Native American societies. (2)

The Norse left “no discernable impact.” I cannot answer why that is, except to note that Viking voyages decreased and ended during the slow process of the Christianization of Scandinavia. So by contrast, Columbus had an enormous impact that is more far reaching than he could have imagined. Ironic indeed, since he grossly underestimated the earth’s size prior to setting sail. For example, “He thought that Japan lay only three thousand miles from the southern European Coast (3).”  He may then have also grossly underestimated the sheer mass numbers of Indigenous Population in the lands he did not first discover in the Americas. No matter though, for such “heathens” would either have to be “converted or annihilated.”

To be sure, the real annihilations did not start until the beginning of Columbus’ second voyage to the Americas in 1493 (1).  For while he had expressed admiration for the overall  generosity of Indigenous People (1) and considered the Tainos to be “Very handsome, gentle, and friendly,” he interpreted all these positive traits as signs of weakness and vulnerability, saying “if devout religious persons knew the Indian Language well, all these people would soon become Christians (3).” As a consequence, he kidnapped some of the Tainos and took them back to Spain.

It would be easy, he asserted, to “subject everyone and make them do what you wished (3).”
 

Indeed, he did subject everyone he had the power to subject.

Source

On his second voyage, in December 1494, Columbus captured 1,500 Tainos on the island of Hispaniola and herded them to Isabela, where 550 of ”the best males and females” were forced aboard ships bound for the slave markets of Seville.

Under Columbus’s leadership, the Spanish attacked the Taino, sparing neither men, women nor children. Warfare, forced labor, starvation and disease reduced Hispaniola’s Taino population (estimated at one million to two million in 1492) to extinction within 30 years.

Furthermore, Columbus wrote a letter to the Spanish governor of the island, Hispaniola. Columbus asked the governor the cut off the ears and the noses of any of the slaves who resisted being subjugated to slavery.


…It is estimated that 100 million Indians from the Caribbean, Central, South, and North America perished at the hands of the European invaders. Sadly, unbelievably, really, much of that wholesale destruction was sanctioned and carried out by the Roman Catholic Church and various Protestant denominations. (1: p.37)

Greed for gold, capitalistic greed through the potential of wealth through the slave trade, and the religious beliefs of Apocalyptic Christianity were three primary motivations Columbus had for setting sail. He was successful in his aims, which fueled genocide against tens of millions of Indigenous People.  He was successful in promoting and aiding in establishing slavery by bringing sugar to Europe and to the New World from Spain, which created the evil necessity in the eyes of some of humanity’s greatest criminals for the Middle Passage, where slaves packed like cargo between decks often had to lie in each other’s feces, urine, and blood.

Columbus’ “successes,” all crimes against humanity, are now more so in these modern times. A day is now in his honor since 1971 (4). That’s one success.  Here are more of Columbus’ “successes” from a book I highly recommend buying.

Unlearning the Language of Conquest: Scholars Expose Anti-Indianism in America (Paperback) by Four Arrows (Don Trent Jacobs) (Editor). p. 237.

As Moyers pointed out, this “mentality” and blind acceptance of biblical inerrancy, which contributed to the genocide of American Indians during Columbus’ time, has, in many ways, continued and continues to inform U.S. foreign policy, including its dealings with its own sovereign Indian Nations.
 

Christopher Columbus :


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(Bold mine)


Christopher Columbus: The Untold Story

“We shall take you and your wives and your children, and shall make slaves of them, and as such shall sell and dispose of them as their Highnesses may command; and we shall take away your goods, and shall do all the harm and damage that we can.” [11]

Source

Mark Twain:

“History doesn’t repeat itself, but it does rhyme.”

Indigenous peoples from the Arctic have long argued that global warming was having a dramatic effect on their environment.

Native Alaska Villages will probably have to relocate, because the ice is melting underneath them.

Opinion: Why Natives must reject Columbus Day

If Native people do not challenge the fundamental premise of the ”doctrine of discovery,” as celebrated every year through Columbus Day, then the racist foundation upon which all federal Indian law and policy is constructed will remain intact. We see the ideology of domination carried to this hemisphere by Columbus playing out every year all over Indian country. We see it in the level of Indian incarceration, in the loss of religious freedom cases, in Indian child welfare cases where non-Indian courts ignore the law, in treaty cases where the United States ignores international standards, in international practice where the United States voted against the adoption of the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and in the Cobell trust fund case where the United States refuses to account for tens, if not hundreds, of billions of dollars that are owed to Individual Indian Money trust accounts.”

Sources:

(1): Kurt Kaltreider, PH.D. “American Indian Prophecies.” pp. 49-57.

(2): Jared Diamond. “Guns, Germs, And Steel.” pp. 67, 79.

(3): Norton. Katzman. Escott. Chudacoff. Paterson. Tuttle. “A People & A Nation.” pp. 20 – 23.

(4): Four Arrows (Don Trent Jacobs). “Unlearning the Language of Conquest.” pp. 20, 236, 31, 275.