Rez charter school wishlist: calculators

( – promoted by navajo)

crossposted at dkos

Klamath River Early College of the Redwoods is a public charter school in the Yurok Indian Nation within Northern California.

With Native American Indians having some of the highest dropout rates, Gevena Wiki founded Klamath River Early College of the Redwoods, or KRECR (pronounced “krek-er“) to provide a culturally relevant program for tribal high school students in 2005. Since then, KRECR students have surpassed other local schools on high school exit exam scores.

However, KRECR students currently have no scientific calculators. My husband took down a stack of regular calculators today, left over from his business, but we don’t have, and can’t afford, the scientific calculators the kids need. So he set up an Amazon.com wishlist account that will deliver scientific calculators directly to KRECR. The address for the school is included, in case you happen to have an old scientific calculator collecting dust and want it put to good use.

More about KRECR below…

You may have seen Smithsonian Magazine’s feature on Klamath River Early College of the Redwoods and Geneva Wiki, “Making the Grade,” some snippets:

The idea behind this innovative project, part of the Early College High School Initiative, largely funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, is that low-income, minority and otherwise disadvantaged young people at risk of dropping out are encouraged to stay in school and get a free, non-intimidating taste of college.  

“This is the front line of our civil rights movement,” says Wiki. “Past generations struggled first over rights to fish and hunt, and then to govern ourselves. Now we need to work on reclaiming ourselves through education.”

In addition to math, science, English and social sciences, Wiki’s students study the Yurok language and such tribal skills as carving redwood canoes, catching eels and making acorn soup. Some educators-including Wiki-believe that such knowledge can make the difference in combating an American Indian dropout rate of more than four in ten nationwide. (Wiki suspects the rate among Yuroks, who have high rates of alcoholism and methamphetamine use, may be even higher.)

North Coast Journal adds to that (check out the slideshow)

Injustice. That’s what Geneva Wiki and her family have been fighting against for as long as she can remember. Wiki is the great-niece of Raymond Mattz, the Yurok man who refused to pay a fine for gill netting on the Klamath River and successfully appealed his case all the way to the Supreme Court, eventually winning back Yurok fishing rights in the early ’70s. Her aunt, Susan Masten, was the former president of the National Congress of American Indians.

Wiki is also the principal of Klamath River Early College of the Redwoods (KRECR), a two-year-old charter high school in Klamath partnered with College of the Redwoods that serves the North Coast’s native community. (About 20 percent of its students are non-native). KRECR is part of the Early College High School Initiative, a program enabling students to earn both a high school diploma and an Associate’s degree in just four years, and it’s completely free.

“I believe that education is my generation’s fight to fight for equality,” Wiki said in her office last Thursday. “Our native young people are underrepresented in educational achievement stats and … we won’t be able to break out of poverty unless we’re able to reclaim education.” Wiki, small and sprightly, wears her heart on her sleeve.

“Our culture is a quiet culture,” Marvin Mattz told me in a whisper earlier that morning. And so, tucked away in a building across the street from the Yurok tribal office, the teachers and students at Klamath River Early College of the Redwoods are changing the face of native education — quietly, perhaps, but profoundly.

The program at KRECR is amazing and the changes for students, their families, and the community, both now and the potential for the future, are huge.

Anyway, I hope you enjoyed getting to know about KRECR a bit more and if you’ve got a scientific calculator collecting dust, or some money for a good cause burning a hole in your pocket, I know just the place!

KRECR’s Amazon.com wishlist

Official KRECR website

Disclosure: I’m a former employee of KRECR; my husband tutors at KRECR; and our boys will attend KRECR in a few more years.

Thanks for reading!

Head of BIA Apologized for Genocide (2000)

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Source

Gover recited a litany of wrongs the BIA inflicted on Indians since its creation as the Indian Office of the War Department. Estimates vary widely, but the agency is believed responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Indians.

Photobucket

http://scholar.google.com/scho…

The last photo from the Fort Smith Historical Society begins by asking a question: “What does it mean to be civilized?” The implication being, the dominant culture was civilized, while the American Indian culture wasn’t.


The 8 Stages of Genocide

1. Classification:

The 8 Stages of Genocide

2. Symbolization:

What is the proper name for “civilized” and the more overt terms used at the time?


The 8 Stages of Genocide

3. Dehumanization:

Such terms were where “One group denies the humanity of the other group.”


“This agency participated in the ethnic cleansing that befell the Western tribes,” Gover said. “It must be acknowledged that the deliberate spread of disease, the decimation of the mighty bison herds, the use of the poison alcohol to destroy mind and body, and the cowardly killing of women and children made for tragedy on a scale so ghastly that it cannot be dismissed as merely the inevitable consequence of the clash of competing ways of life.”

Furthermore, “Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, though sometimes informally.” Hence, the “deliberate spread of disease, the decimation of the mighty bison herds, the use of the poison alcohol to destroy mind and body, and the cowardly killing of women and children made for tragedy on a scale so ghastly that it cannot be dismissed as merely the inevitable consequence of the clash of competing ways of life.”

The 8 Stages of Genocide

4. Organization:

http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPort…

Photobucket

“Extremists drive the groups apart.  Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda.” Such as, “The practice of pitting Indians against Indians reached its peak in the next phase of military activity, the American Civil War of 1861-65,” kidnapping children and forcing them into the Boarding Schools, forcing the Cherokee into Internment Camps prior to their Trail of Tears, and the Hate Groups yelling “Kill the Indian, save the man” in the U.S. Congress.


The 8 Stages of Genocide

5. Polarization:

How generous indeed, since they didn’t want to go to the 7th stage of genocide, extermination.


The misery continued after the BIA became part of the Interior Department in 1849, Gover said. Children were brutalized in BIA-run boarding schools, Indian languages and religious practices were banned and traditional tribal governments were eliminated, he said. The high rates of alcoholism, suicide and violence in Indian communities today are the result, he said.

Was the Dominant Culture civilized?


The 8 Stages of Genocide

6. IDENTIFICATION:

Is the Dominant Culture civilized now?


The legal definition of genocide

Deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to destroy a group
includes the deliberate deprivation of resources needed for the group’s physical survival, such as clean water, food, clothing, shelter or medical services. Deprivation of the means to sustain life can be imposed through confiscation of harvests, blockade of foodstuffs, detention in camps, forcible relocation or expulsion into deserts.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/…

Photobucket

I would have to say yes, the Dominant Culture is civilized now. For to be of the mind set of the Dominant Culture, one must be in genocide denial, and what better word for a culture in denial – than “civilized?”

Civilized, Colonial indeed.


Supreme Court rules in big land-into-trust case

Tribes that weren’t under federal jurisdiction in 1934 cannot follow the land-into-trust process of the Indian Reorganization Act, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on Tuesday.

New Deal Second Class Citizens

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This is another entry in my New Deal pictorial series.  It just takes a roundabout route to get there.  

We start a generation before the Great Depression, as Seattle photographer Edward Curtis was traveling the west for his epic photographic record of Native Americans.  This may be the best known of his of his thousands of images, each contact printed from 14×17 inch glass plate negatives, and rendered in copper plate photogravure for limited edition publication:

     

It’s Cañon de Chelly in Navajo country near Chinle, AZ, photographed 1904.  There’s a lot of controversies and opinions on Curtis’s work, which might rightly be called his mission.  Or even obsession.  I’m gonna add a few opinions of my own, some context, and then bring it around to the New Deal.

Cross-posted at Docudharma and Daily Kos

Note:  Curtis’s pictures were all downloaded from the Library of Congress.  The quality of the images provided there is inconsistent:  they’re all dark (some moreso than others), and the color tone of the pictures varies from one to another.  I like the sepia tones, and that’s the form they were originally published in, too.  But I was a little lazy in trying to get the final appearance consistent between the pictures.  I can only hope you will grant some forgiveness on that score – I didn’t equalize all the variance very well.

         

Chief Seattle – as is often the case, the provenance of oratory from oral-tradition language, is suspect.  Tradition has passed down that he made a great speech, and there’s no readon to doubt that.  But no one knows for sure what he actually said.  The provenance of this photo is certain, however.  It’s Seattle’s daughter, called “Princess Angeline” photographed by Curtis c. 1902.  She’s the first Native American he photographed, in the city named for her father, about 50 years after he made his famous speech as a respected elder at the time of the Governor Stevens Treaties back in the 1850s.  Angeline likely deserves some credit for inspiring his Curtis’s work.  

Chief Seattle (1850s)

Every hillside, every valley, every plain and grove, has been hallowed by some sad or happy event in days long vanished. Even the rocks, which seem to be dumb and dead as the swelter in the sun along the silent shore, thrill with memories of stirring events connected with the lives of my people, and the very dust upon which you now stand responds more lovingly to their footsteps than yours, because it is rich with the blood of our ancestors, and our bare feet are conscious of the sympathetic touch. Our departed braves, fond mothers, glad, happy hearted maidens, and even the little children who lived here and rejoiced here for a brief season, will love these somber solitudes and at eventide they greet shadowy returning spirits. And when the last Red Man shall have perished, and the memory of my tribe shall have become a myth among the White Men, these shores will swarm with the invisible dead of my tribe, and when your children’s children think themselves alone in the field, the store, the shop, upon the highway, or in the silence of the pathless woods, they will not be alone.

Especially that more famous speech about the Earth being our Mother.  This has been attributed in the past, but debunked in a scholarly sense.

How can you buy or sell the sky, the warmth of the land? The idea is strange to us. If we do not own the freshness of the air and the sparkle of the water, how can you buy them?

Every part of the Earth is sacred to my people. Every shining pine needle, every sandy shore, every mist in the dark woods, every clear and humming insect is holy in the memory and experience of my people. The sap which courses through the trees carries the memory and experience of my people. The sap which courses through the trees carries the memories of the red man.

I do know enough of the Northwest Culture, firsthand, to know that the people were/are horrified at the destruction of their watersheds, and the near elimination of the salmon, which were as central to their material culture as were the bison on the Plains.  Yeah, that’s a mountain of buffalo skulls, from the days when the government was paying bounties as part of the effort to starve the Plains tribes onto reservations once the cross-country railroad was completed in 1869:

         

Back to Curtis: He submitted some of his early Indian photographs to a national contest and won the Grand Prize.  It led to a patron’s commission from robber baron J.P. Morgan to create his magnum opus.

THE VANISHING RACE

Edward Curtis’s work has oft been criticized for not being accurate documentary work.  Back then, there was a pervasive notion around that Native Americans would vanish from the face of the earth, within the lifetime of people living then.  In addition to J.P. Morgan’s patronage, Curtis got renegade Republican former President Theodore Roosevelt to contribute a preface to the limited edition set of folios produced by his project:

The Indian as he has hitherto been is on the point of passing away. …  It would be a veritable calamity if a vivid and truthful record of these conditions were not kept.



Mr. Curtis, because of the singular combination of qualities with which he has been blest, and because of his extraordinary success in making and using his opportunities, has been able to do what no other man ever has done; what, as far as we can see, not other man coud do.  He is an artist who works out of doors and not in the closet.  He is a close observer, whose qualities of mind and body fit him to make his observations out in the field, surrounded by the wild life he commemorates.  He has lived on intimate terms with many different tribes of the mountains and the plains.  He knows them as they hunt, as they travel, as they go about their various avocations on the march and in the camp.  He knows their medicine me and sorcerers, their chiefs and warriors, their young men and maidens.  He has not only seen their vigorous outward existence, but has caught glimpses, such as few white men ever catch, into that strange spiritual and mental life of theirs; from whose innermost recesses all white men are forever barred.

One can only guess what Curtis had in mind in this photograph.  First, it’s important to note that it’s not a “stolen” picture.  That naked man, with his bow, is clearly a willing participant in creating the image, with its shades of European Romanticism.  Certainly more dream than literal reality.  And naturally conjuring up that concept of the “noble savage”.  Frenchman Jean-Jacques Rousseau is given credit for that phrase, though probably doesn’t rightfully deserve it.  But he certainly buys into the notion of a state of primeval purity.  This from his Discourse on Inequality (1754):

The first man who, having fenced in a piece of land, said “This is mine,” and found people naive enough to believe him, that man was the true founder of civil society. From how many crimes, wars, and murders, from how many horrors and misfortunes might not any one have saved mankind, by pulling up the stakes, or filling up the ditch, and crying to his fellows: Beware of listening to this impostor; you are undone if you once forget that the fruits of the earth belong to us all, and the earth itself to nobody.

One should remember that the French word sauvage means wild, with entirely different connotations than its English cognate.  Now, back to Curtis.  I’ve spent the last couple of weeks looking through the entire archive, and it seems pretty clear he was trying to do pretty much what TR said – record stuff, as best he could, before it was lost forever.  It’s manifestly clear in photographs like this little-seen one, entitled Hopi Farmers, Yesterday and Today:

         

And regardless what else one thinks of Curtis’s work, he was a really good portraitist, whether going for the modern (of his day) or the primeval timeless.  His many, many subjects were clearly willing ones.  These are not stolen images, they are given freely – Cheyenne on the left, Alaska Native (Kotzebue) on the right:

 

Curtis spent over two decades working on this project, roughly a generation’s time.  A generation before he started, the last of the western tribes were confined to reservations with only a few renegades like Geronimo on the loose in the 1880s.  “I will fight no more forever” Chief Joseph was brought to ground in 1877.  Curtis tracked down some of those last leaders and photographed them as old men.

One of the “good guys” on Western Indian policy of the post-Civil War days was John Wesley Powell.  Powell is most famous for being one-armed and commanding the first boat trip down the Colorado River.  He was also the first head of the US Geological Survey.  His survey expeditions throughout the West were unique in that he went without military escort, and learned to speak some of the native languages himself.  This from Joseph Hillers, from Powell’s 1872 field season.  These people were the real deal in terms of being sauvage (in the French sense).  Living on the north rim of the Grand Canyon, they’d had very little contact with Europeans.

               

Powell was a correspondent with, and colleague of William Henry Morgan (he’s a topic for another day, all in himself).  Morgan, exchanging letters with missionaries from around the globe, “discovered” that matrilineal descent was the practice of most aboriginal cultures.  Powell took those ideas and helped craft a public policy to obliterate indigenous culture in favor of assimilation.  Key policy points were extinguishing native languages, with all the culture contained therein, and getting rid of matrilineal extended family organization and property inheritance.  The Indian Boarding schools played a central role in that process.

Perhaps the best known of those Indian Schools is Carlisle, in Pennsylvania, founded in 1879.  That’s an arriving student, and after he’d been “trained” at Carlisle.  The thing that’s always impressed me about this one is that they even made his skin lighter.  Carlisle was founded by Col. Richard Pratt who is oft-quoted as saying:

A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one, and that … has been an enormous factor in promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man.

Below are the students at Fort Spokane Indian School.  The picture was taken in 1904, the same year Curtis took the picture at Cañon de Chelly, found above the fold in this diary.

     

And so the various Indian Boarding schools in the U.S. and Canada did their work.  There’s currently a “Truth & Reconciliation” kind of restitution process underway in Canada.  The U.S. might be well-served to do the same.  It irks me a bit that they’ve never digitized the evidence in the US, and put it online to show what happened.  I sat and cried at things I saw in the Archives:  Children being taught to iron cotton shirts, brand cattle, sit on chairs fer chrissakes!  Not depicted, but attested to innumerable times:  Beatings for speaking their own native language with their own siblings.  And, as I’ve already mentioned, this started a full generation before Curtis started taking pictures like this one (Navajo):

               

It’s not like their own cultures didn’t know how to take care of themselves.  Northwest coast is of the longhouse tradition, built facing the water, home of the salmon.  Big canoes for travel, fishing and even whale-hunting (as above).

And the War Department’s gonna train kids from Tulalip (a Puget Sound tribe) to work in a sawmill?  Like they ain’t been raised to know more about woodworking than their teachers and commanding officers would ever know?

     

They were supposed to be raised away from their own dances and songs, too, not just their languages.  

Most of ’em didn’t go home for the summer either.  Often they were hired out as servants or laborers instead.  The schools put them to work, too, planting crops for their own meals.  (Spokane 1900)

Like Native people hadn’t known how to feed themselves till the missionaries and soldiers showed up to teach them:

Oh yeah.  They were supposed to abandon their religion, too.

THE NEW DEAL

Like I said at the beginning, this diary’s an entry in my New Deal series.  You’ve now been through several screens of pictures and chatter, but not a hint of New Deal.  Here’s where it ties in.  I’ve been trying to get a grip on how issues of race and gender played out in the 1930s WPA.  I was finding very few blacks showing up in the pictures of work crews and all.  There were a few – it was an all-Black labor force that restored Booker T. Washington’s DC home for the National Park Service, for example.  And there was a Harlem branch of the Federal Arts Project.

Then, suddenly I found a bunch in education.  Some really touching stuff of elderly former slaves learning to read, and the like.  That was in adult education.  Then there was vocational education, which ignited a few synapses and got my imagination in gear:

Looks a lot like “training activities at the Indian Boarding schools:

And, when it comes right down to it, women of all stripes got steered in similar directions for work as domestic servants.  This is WPA vocational education, too:

Nevermind that many of ’em would be in wartime defense factories a few years later, this was about all they were allowed to learn about (plus typing and sewing).

ROSIE THE RIVETER

So, we look though all these various training pictures, and it appears the lesson to all is to keep the head bowed, and gaze cast downwards, and subject yourself to someone superior.  This from the great Dorothea Lange, photographer with the New Deal FSA.  Your tax dollars at work (Clarksdale, MS.)

Then there’s a war, and there’s the Tuskeegee Airmen:

Then there’s a war and there’s Rosie the Riveter (this rare color pic from 1943):

Then there’s a war, and suddenly it’s a national treasure that the Bureau of Indian Affairs didn’t succeed in suppressing native languages and cultures after all.  In addition to the celebrated Navajo Code Talkers (here), there were Choctaw and Comanche Code Talkers, too:

The thing I like about Rosie, and the airmen, and the code talkers – all ’em got to hold their heads up high, be proud of doing their best, of contributing to an effort bigger than themselves for the “common good”.  The thing I don’t get is why these qualities are mostly drawn upon only for the jingoism of war.  Not even that with George “Let’s Go Shopping!” Bush.  



Denver & Rio Grande RR, WWII

How come people – all of us – don’t get to matter all the time?  Power’s one of those things needs exercising; something we all need to do, one way or another.  If it’s been Wall-E world for awhile, it’s gotta stop.

Inspiration is a funny thing.  I knew about Curtis’s work, and had researched pictures of the boarding schools in the National Archives years ago.  (Damn them for not putting most of that stuff online yet, inviting you to Maryland to do your own research and pay for copies!)  Looking at those women getting trained by the WPA to be domestic help was the starting point for this essay.

Previous entries in the series:

American Indians, Hollywood, and Stereotypes

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Racism is based on ignorance and is passed down generationally.  One racist adult caretaker may infect a few children with their racism; however, one racist film or television show would infect many more and more deeply ingrain any racism that already was in existence in my opinion. Examples such as in the following video have contributed to anti – Indian sentiments in the popular American culture in the relevant generations who viewed such films.

VIDEO: How Hollywood stereotyped the Native Americans

(Reposted since The ‘redface’ era returns)

The main question I posed in “Stereotypical Elements (that) appear… in Athletic Contests” was “Who are they imitating?” It is vital to understand that in such “run – of – the – mill – westerns,” language exists that dehumanizes the American Indian and rationalizes genocide. Quoting a scene from “The Great Sioux Massacre (1965)” in the video above,


A man doesn’t forget easily when his wife and kids were butchered.

The Cheyenne, wasn’t it?

Cheyenne, Apache, Blackfoot, Sioux – they’re vicious killers all of them; they ain’t even human.

the film justified the genocide committed at the Sand Creek Massacre by stating “they’re vicious killers all of them; they ain’t even human.” Let’s look at “Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film” by Jacquelyn Kilpatrick to break down how such racist films dehumanize the American Indian more specifically before identifying who the actors in “The Great Sioux Massacre (1965)” were imitating.

Author Jacquelyn Kilpatrick outlines three elements of stereotyping American Indians in films: mental, sexual, and spiritual.


Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film

The stereotypes of Native Americans can be divided into three categories: mental, sexual, and spiritual, the most meaningful of which is probably the mental.

Although the actual words stupid and dumb are seldom seen in descriptions of Natives – perhaps because fighting a stupid enemy or having a dumb sidekick is not especially flattering – Native Peoples have been firmly placed in the lower echelons of intelligence by many European Americans since first contact was made. Benevolent terms such as “innocent,” “primitive,” and “unsaved” indicate a lesser intelligence, and the more antagonistic descriptors certainly point to comparative dimness. For instance, while the word stupid does not imply a lack of cleanliness, the word dirty does imply stupidity, and we are all familiar with the terms dirty redskin, filthy heathens, and so forth. This follows the pattern of stereotype development Perkins notes: “The most important and the common feature of the stereotypes of the major structural groups relates to their mental abilities. In each case the oppressed group is characterized as innately less intelligent…”  

The presumed lack of mental prowess may have something to do with the image of the Native American as intensely sexual – more creature than human, more bestial than celestial. Sexuality has historically constituted an important dimension of Hollywood Indians, both male and female, producing a very scary character. We repeatedly see the lustful savage attacking the white woman, requiring that he be killed immediately. And we have the lovely “Indian Princess” who is enormously attractive but must die before any damage is done to the purity of the gene pool…

The “spirituality” of Native Americans is brushed off as primitive or heathen in many run – of – the – mill – westerns…

Before identifying who the actors in “The Great Sioux Massacre (1965)” were imitating, we need to recognize that the stereotypes in such “run – of – the – mill – western” weren’t taken from American Indian tribes who resisted the U.S. extermination policy against them peacefully,

those stereotypes were taken from “…Warrior Societies which had a key beginning and a key ending in 1825 and 1878…”


“Stereotypical Elements (that) appear… in Athletic Contests”

These facts in my opinion: that the U.S. traded weapons to the American Indians which naturally increased violence, and that the U.S. did not keep its treaties and created desperate conditions wherein American Indians would either have to starve or fight; may possibly provide a foundation for historically understanding and doing away with “stereotypical elements (that) appear… in athletic contests” and such stereotypical elements in “run – of – the – mill – westerns (added).”

The U.S. traded weapons to the American Indians which naturally increased violence.


Source

And the Chiefs and Warriors, as aforesaid, promise and engage that their tribe will never, by sale, exchange, or as presents, supply any nation or tribe of Indians, not in amity with the United States, with guns, ammunition, or other implements of war.

And trade in general increased violence, as well as how “Europeans and Americans manipulated traditional hostilities.”


Encyclopedia of the Great Plains Indians Edited by David J. Wishart. p. 103

Destructive war in the plains intensified after contact because of migration of eastern tribes (the Cheyennes and the Lakotas, for example) into the Plains as settlement moved west, because Europeans and Americans manipulated traditional hostilities, and because tribes competed for access to European and American trade, especially in fur – rich areas of the Northern Plains and Prairie Provinces.  

The increased violence caused by weapons trade and “Europeans and Americans manipulated traditional hostilities” affected not only Indian Nation to Indian Nation, but it also spread from Indian Nation to white settlers. This certainly wasn’t the last conflict, but the last Indian Raid was in Kansas in 1878. Within those raids and the brutality therein lie much racial resentment in my personal conversations and readings, and quite understandably so. There were deaths on both sides and it matters not to the surviving family members why their ancestor died, only that they were murdered and how. I don’t pretend to have the answer for that; I just know that this racism we are speaking of is not the solution. Let us continue.

The U.S. did not keep its treaties and created desperate conditions wherein American Indians would starve as part of the extermination policy against them, and that meant making a choice to fight in order to survive or to starve to death.


Custer’s Indian Hostages: (One White Woman & 2 White Children, Part 1)

Moxtaveto lost even more respect for signing the Little Arkansas Treaty of 1865 after the Sand Creek Massacre. It gave some land to Black Kettle and others, promised food and other survival necessities, promised that conflicts would be handled by taking Indians into custody rather than being murdered, “and that no white person, except officers, agents, and employees of the Government, shall go upon or settle within the country embraced within said limits, unless formerly admitted and incorporated into some one of the tribes lawfully residing there, according to its laws and usages.”


Custer “Stayed The Course” & The Kansas Raids

Confining and binding those Native Nations to land where they could not survive by hunting or agriculture, breaking promises to provide those survival means, and propaganda revolving around the Kansas Raids reset Custer “on the course,” as if they were without severe provocation in the first place.

Furthermore, the Sand Creek Massacre descendants were


Encyclopedia of the Great Plains Indians Edited by David J. Wishart. p. 49

…promised indemnities under the Treaty of Little Arkansas Treaty in 1865, which had not yet been paid as of 2001, although the Cheyenne Sand Creek Descendants Association continues to make legal efforts to collect the funds.

And at that Massacre at Sand Creek


“Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee” by Dee Brown. p. 92.

Chivington and his soldiers destroyed the lives or the power of every Cheyenne and Arapaho chief who had held out for peace with the white men.

So: trade in general increased violence, how “Europeans and Americans manipulated traditional hostilities” increased violence, the U.S. not keeping its treaties helped create violence, and the Massacre that started the so called “Indian Wars” that involved “destroy(ing) the lives or the power of every Cheyenne and Arapaho chief who had held out for peace with the white men -“ created much, much, more violence.

– snip –


143rd Anniversary of the Sand Creek Massacre of Nov. 29th, 1864

Kurt Kaltreider, PH.D. “American Indian Prophecies.” pp. 58-59:

– The report of witnesses at Sand Creek:

“I saw some Indians that had been scalped, and the ears cut off the body of White Antelope,” said Captain L. Wilson of the first Colorado Cavalry. “One Indian who had been scalped had also his skull smashed in, and I heard that the privates of White Antelope had been cut off to make a tobacco bag of. I heard some of the men say that the privates of one of the squaws had been cut out and put on a stick…”

John S. Smith…

All manner of depredations were inflicted on their persons; they were scalped, their brains knocked out; the men used their knives, ripped open women, clubbed little children, knocked them in the heads with their guns, beat their brains out, mutilated their bodies in every sense of the word…worse mutilation that I ever saw before, the women all cut to pieces…children two or three months old; all ages lying there.

Now, who was the actor in “The Great Sioux Massacre (1965)” imitating in the attitudes portrayed? Chivington, the butcher of the Sand Creek Massacre.

Photobucket

http://www.forttours.com/image…


Source

“the Cheyennes will have to be roundly whipped — or completely wiped out — before they will be quiet. I say that if any of them are caught in your vicinity, the only thing to do is kill them.” A month later, while addressing a gathering of church deacons, he dismissed the possibility of making a treaty with the Cheyenne: “It simply is not possible for Indians to obey or even understand any treaty. I am fully satisfied, gentlemen, that to kill them is the only way we will ever have peace and quiet in Colorado.”


“The Great Sioux Massacre (1965)”

A man doesn’t forget easily when his wife and kids were butchered.

The Cheyenne, wasn’t it?

Cheyenne, Apache, Blackfoot, Sioux – they’re vicious killers, all of them;
they ain’t even human.

When asked at the military inquiry why children had been killed, one of the soldiers quoted Chivington as saying, “NITS MAKE LICE.”

Author Jacquelyn Kilpatrick outlined three elements of stereotyping American Indians in films: mental, sexual, and spiritual. The “most meaningful of which is probably the mental,” Kilpatrick stated.

Chivington, the butcher of the Sand Creek Massacre had said “It simply is not possible for Indians to obey or even understand any treaty,” which was an attack on the intelligence of the Cheyenne. The actor in “The Great Sioux Massacre” who said “they ain’t even human” echoed Chivington, the butcher of the Sand Creek Massacre who said “Nits make lice.” Both statements rationalize the genocide committed at the Sand Creek Massacre. In addition, “Non – human” in such a context means “lacking intelligence,” or “not as smart as.” Certainly, “lice” are not seen as having very high intelligence and both – dehumanize. It should be abundantly clear that such “run – of – the – mill westerns”  have contributed to anti – Indian sentiments in the popular American culture in the relevant generations who viewed such films.

Finally, similarly to what the Consolidated Indigenous Shadow Report says about Indian Mascots on page 72,


Although the United States would probably respond that racist mascots and logos are an exercise of free speech that it has reserved under the Convention, they reveal the depth and pervasiveness of the racism against Indigenous Peoples so deeply engrained in the history and psyche of the United States and the dominant culture.

“run – of – the – mill westerns” also “reveal the depth and pervasiveness of the racism against Indigenous Peoples so deeply engrained in the history and psyche of the United States and the dominant culture.”

* I deliberately used the word “imitated” as opposed to “resembled.” That was due to the fact that the last Indian Boarding School did not close until the very early 1970’s, while the Forced Sterilizations of Indigenous Women were during the 1970’s. Both were prior to and during the The Siege of Wounded Knee 1973, respectively. In that light, I used the word “imitated” deliberately.


Source

The Great Sioux Massacre is an entertaining pack of lies about Custer’s Last Stand. General Custer (Philip Carey) is herein depicted as a bastion of tolerance, whose efforts to secure fair treatment for the Indians lead to several confrontations with corrupt government officials.

Disrespecting the Pipe: TBS’S “Dances With Groceries”

( – promoted by navajo)


1st actor: “Do you know what I think this is?”

Carl: “A bottle cap?”

1st actor: “It’s an arrow head, Carl. This is probably an ancient Indian relic. Right here, right here in the greens and grains.”

Carl: “We’re in the handicap zone.”

1st actor: “…I bet we can make some money off this; I’m not kidding you.”

Especially in light of “The ‘redface’ era returns(ing),” this is a poignant slap in the face.


ACTION ALERT! TV program disrespecting the sacred pipe

In the program aired on Tuesday night 2/17/09 9:00 pm (mtn time) Character Leslie Pool, played by John Lehr discovers that he has “Shawnee” heritage. He then decides to start running his grocery store in the “Indian way” makes everything organic, puts up dream catchers, states he even has a birthmark on his butt in the shape of a tomahawk.

– snip –

In a scene in Pool’s office, he brings out a “peace pipe” and wants to smoke it with Mercy Jones. She grabs the pipe away from him and slams it down on the desk.


You can file a complaint with TBS at:

TBS

Re: 10 Items or Less Program

404-885-0758

their online email form is located at:

http://support.tbs.com/ics/sup…

I shouldn’t have to try to explain why this is so offensive. I could start with the fact the trailer above reminds me of the Spiro Mounds.


This headline brought the Spiro Mounds to national attention in the 1930’s when a group of treasure hunters set off a charge of black powder in the largest mound after losing their “mining” lease. The men sold artifacts from the mounds to collectors all over the world. Fragile items like cotton cloth and feather robes were tossed aside and crushed underfoot.


1st actor: “It’s an arrow head, Carl. This is probably an ancient Indian relic. Right here, right here in the greens and grains.”

Carl: “We’re in the handicap zone.”

1st actor: “…I bet we can make some money off this; I’m not kidding you.”

I could also state, that isn’t this at the real heart of the matter regarding “a birthmark on his butt in the shape of a tomahawk?”


The mascot debate is actually the latest in a long series of battles over who controls American Indian culture. Since most of us never learned the history of white/Native relations in our country, the issue seems to have sprung out of nowhere.

It’s not just about mascots; it’s about “who controls American Indian culture.”

I’ll end by stating, the scene with the sacred pipe is unfathomable in its blatant disrespect.


You can file a complaint with TBS at:

TBS

Re: 10 Items or Less Program

404-885-0758

their online email form is located at:

http://support.tbs.com/ics/sup…

Update:(Edited: redsk—s) “I, have false historical memory syndrome”

( – promoted by navajo)

“I never did hear the words Native Americans, American Indians, or First Nations in school. I was taught about the Civil War and Slavery, but never did the word Native American come out of my junior high school history teacher’s mouth. He was the football coach of our team, the “Red Skins.”

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I began college right after my high school graduation and took the course, American History to 1877. The Department Chairman taught that course. Consequently, I became so upset at being made to read “Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee” by Dee Brown in that class, that I could not sleep for two nights.

I lost yet more sleep having to write a paper on a chapter of the book. So depressed was I, that I decided I needed psychological help. I looked for my potential therapist very carefully; one who was ultra – conservative. When I finally found one who answered affirmatively to, “Do you think Rush Limbaugh is genius?” I knew I’d found the one for me. The appointment was made.

I drove up to my new therapist’s well – to – do home. I was extremely impressed with its overall size and well kept lawn. I found myself already wanting what this therapist had to offer. “Come on in,” the therapist said with a welcoming smile. In addition to my having been impressed with their nice house and well kept lawn, I also found myself impressed with the home’s cleanliness and well placed religious items. I was directed to their office and sat down.

“What is bothering you?” The therapist inquired after I had filled out the questionnaire. I adjusted myself and made myself more comfortable. I told the therapist what was weighing so heavily on me: “Did Christopher Columbus really commit genocide; did the Europeans do likewise; and if so, are those effects still alive today?” “Well,” the therapist said, “Let’s take you back to when you were in Kindergarten.”

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I closed my eyes and was taken to an altered state of mind, that of which I had never experienced before. I was five years old and on my red square. The room had the stale smell of children having come in from recess all sweaty. The teacher quieted the class and turned on the tape player. “Christopher Columbus discovered America” the lyrics sang in a cartoonish tone. I clapped with glee to the words, singing it with the rest of the class. I was smiling apparently, for the therapist asked me what I was experiencing. I said I was singing along to “Christopher Columbus discovered America.” My therapist then counseled me. “That’s right. Germs had wiped out almost all the Indigenous People. The very few Indigenous People who were left after Columbus arrived were killed by war among themselves and by wars with the Europeans. Some tribes even committed genocide. Consequently, less advanced civilizations must give way to more advanced ones. That’s what the studies say.” I felt a huge weight lifted off my shoulders. “Let’s go to when you were thirteen now,” my therapist said.

I was in my junior high history class; we’d just had lunch. I was feeling nervous, since I was working up the nerve to ask the girl I had a crush on for ice cream. The coach of the “Red Skins,” who was my history teacher, spoke in a sarcastic tone. “The Indians were freed before the African Americans were. Also class, the Indians gave up their land willingly.” My therapist asked me what I was seeing. I told my therapist about what I was remembering; specifically, I told my therapist about what the coach had said. “Yes! They did indeed relinquish their land willingly and were paid well for it. That’s also what the studies say. Did you know any Native Americans when you were there?” I remembered one who sat in the back of the classroom. We called him “Tonto” when his hair was long and “White Boy” after he cut it off. My therapist asked me again, “Did you know any Native Americans when you were there?” “No,” I replied. My therapist then guided me out of the trance. As I opened my eyes and as they adjusted to the room, I felt all the burdens lifted off me for which I had come.  “What do you make out of all that?” My therapist asked me.

I said that my teachers had been right, and that I finally saw things in their proper perspective. As I left the well – to – do home and immaculate lawn, the miraculous consequence of the immense burden that was lifted from me was: I’ll never have to listen to any of this nonsense again.

I have…


LIMBAUGH: So, in your mind, they’re simply trying to duplicate the actions taken by the American injuns, and get themselves set up so they have casinos over there?

I have seen…


Michigan: Racism toward Native Americans in school

The man claimed that his son, a second-grader at Stambaugh Elementary, has been singled out because he is a Native American. According to the complaint, a white teacher grabbed the student on Jan. 26. The teacher has allegedly grabbed the student multiple times in the past, but the school district has taken no action against the teacher, the complaint added. “My son has had problems with white students, yet he is written up and the white students are not,” the man stated in the complaint.

I have seen the light.


“To: Jodi Rave

“I cannot stand it. ONE MORE DAY!! How many front page articles to do with Indians? Oh my God…almost every day? Do I live in a city that is Mostly white or am I living on a Reservation and don’t know it? Wait a minute…if I were on a reservation then I would get everything for FREE, guess I am in Missoula. I assure you, most of Missoulians do not give a crap if a tribe “adopted” Barack, or how the economy is affecting them, or all that other silly shit you manage to get on the front page. How about putting your stupid stories on the territory page once in awhile if you must. THEY ARE NOT FRONT PAGE MATERIAL!! …

“What is tomorrow’s front page “How Native Americans wipe their ass?”

I, have false historical memory syndrome.”

*Content for fictional story complied from first and second hand experiences, both witnessed by the author.

And Arthur Higbee has “false historical memory syndrome” as well.


Arthur Higbee: “Naming teams after American Indians does not dishonor but pays tribute to them and keeps them alive in the national consciousness. In misguided notions of political correctness, we may soon find ourselves erasing Indian names everywhere. We’ll have to rename Tecumseh, Mich.; Indian Hill Road in Winnetka, Ill., and thousands of other places. ”

Update:

You must go read this from Ojibwa.

Impressions of the Standing Rock Reservation – Photo Edition

( – promoted by navajo)

Cross-posted on the Daily Kos

For those of you who haven’t followed the Pretty Bird Woman House diaries, to make a long story perhaps too short, last fall I became the shelter’s fundraiser. Last winter, due to the generosity of the Netroots, the shelter bought a 3 bedroom house in McLaughlin SD, and it now a fully-functioning, 3 bedroom women’s shelter.

Georgia Little Shield, the shelter’s director, invited me out to Standing Rock to observe some domestic violence prevention workshops they were doing in the communities with Cecilia Fire Thunder and Carmen O’Leary, two famous activists. Unfortunately, due to some snow and severe cold the workshop was postponed until after I left. So, I had to stay indoors for the first few days and then I got to know the eastern part of the reservation for the rest of the time.

Below the fold you’ll find lots of photos of Standing Rock and some of my impressions. I will follow with another diary strictly about the shelter.

You’ll see that this has taken me a while to write this. I came down with the flu after I got back, and also had some more thinking to do about what I saw.  

Before continuing, I want to add that I had the privilege of accompanying two wonderful French journalists, Anne Senges and Stephane Gladieu who are doing a story on the shelter and Standing Rock for Marie Claire magazine (they found out about the story on DKos!) and Getty images, which will have the story in English along with the photos for editors.

Because they were so taken with the problems on Standing Rock, they will provide us with the entire article and photos to use as a fundraising tool. So, in about March I’ll be doing a diary that’s a reprint of that article, or they will post it directly here. They got some amazing individual stories, and the photographer is one of most well known in France, so I am excited about that.

First, lets take a look at Standing Rock in the winter. I arrived to blowing snow and below zero temps at night. Georgia Little Shield was supposed to pick me up in Rapid City, but sent Tannekkia Williams instead because of a death in the family. Going into Rapid City was bad advice – I would never have suspected that anyone would think nothing of driving 5 hours to pick someone up at the airport (Bismark ND would have been closer to Standing Rock, but Georgia lives on the Cheyenne River Reservation, which is on the southern boarder).

Though Tannekkia, who is a shelter volunteer and board member, grew up in Minneapolis but she married an enrolled member of Standing Rock (and then become a domestic violence victim), and is quite assimilated into the Lakota culture. If you went to the Pretty Bird Woman House panel at the Netroots Nation, you might remember her. She is a very articulate spokesperson for the shelter and anti-domestic violence efforts on Standing Rock.

Tannekkia greeted me with the joyful announcement that she had seen 30 spotted eagles on her trip down, and one even smashed into the side of her car. She considered this a very good omen.  

After we had dinner in Rapid City, Tanekkia took me to nearby Bear Butte, one of the two major Lakota sacred sites in the region (the other being Devilstower), even though it was dark and wet snow was falling. After a drive up a very long hill and a very short hike we reached a clearing near the summit. Despite the weather and the darkness, the area felt incredibly peaceful, and pretty soon the clouds parted to reveal a nearly-full moon, which lit up our surroundings for a few minutes.  The clearing also contained a skeleton of a sweat lodge, next to a large a pile of stones used to heat it. Tannekkia explained that elder men used that lodge when they went up there. She also pointed out tobacco prayer flags along the way, and offered some of her own to a big boulder from a little pouch she had with her. We both left feeling peaceful and refreshed.

Well, during the now six-hour trip back to Standing Rock in the blowing snow, we found out that the workshops for the whole week had been postponed, which also meant that Georgia would be holed up in her trailer on the Cheyenne River Reservation for much of the week as well. The Tribal Offices also shut down for most of the week. Such is winter in the Dakotas.  

Not to worry, there was always the incredible scenery.  

A typical view driving around Standing Rock in the winter.

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Standing Rock house

Little House on the Prairie!

Little House on the Prairir

buffalo on the STanding Rock jan 09

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buffalo cropped

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Frozen Missouri River from Mobridge SD. In Lakota it’s Lake Oahe. This part of the river was originally a stream but was flooded for a damn, which drove dozens of families from their homes and killed a lot of trees, from what I could see of the stumps farther up river. The Tribe receives monies each year in supposed reparations for this. This year they decided to use some of those funds for a sexual assault response team, which will probably transform Tannekkia from a volunteer into a full time staff member with an office in the Tribal Council building. On the hill you can also see the smaller casino on the Reservation.

sitting bull monumnet full autocontrast

Sitting Bull Monument

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Tannekkia in an impromptu shoot

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tannik big sky horses cropped_edited-1

Big sky at dusk

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Prairie Pastels

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Looking at the Sakagawea monument at sunset

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A prairie dog village in winter

General Information from the Standing Rock website

Standing Rock Reservation Eight DistrictsDistrict Population

1. Fort Yates, North Dakota 1,961 5. Little Eagle, South Dakota 695

2. Porcupine, North Dakota 219 6. Mclaughlin (Bear Soldier), SD 758

3. Kenel, South Dakota 259 7. Bullhead (Rock Creek), SD 692

4. Wakpala, South Dakota 707 8. Cannon Ball, North Dakota 847

Tribal/Agency Headquarters: Fort Yates, North Dakota

Counties: Sioux County, North Dakota; Corson, Dewey and Ziebach Counties, South Dakota

Federal Reservation: 1873

Population of enrolled members: 10,859

Reservation Population: 6,171

Density:: 0.4 persons per square mile

Labor Force: 3,761

Unemployment percentage rate: 79

Language: Lakota/Dakota and English

Lakota/Dakota Bands: Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Yanktonia, Cuthead

Land Status: Acres

Total Area 2,300,000

Tribal Owned 866,072

Tribal Owned Allotted 542,543

Total tribal owned 1,408,061

Non-Indian Owned 1,283,000

Reservoir Taken area 55,993

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Tribal Council Building

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Prairie Knights Casino in Ft. Yates. There is a smaller one near Mobridge.

Housing

One thing we learned during the shelter fundraiser is that there are chronic housing shortages on the reservation. This gave me the impression that all the housing stock would be terrible, but it’s not. There still isn’t enough of it, but at least much of it is not as terrible as I thought it would be. Some of it is bad, but much of it is OK. But since there are shortages often more than one generation must live in a house, and people don’t have a choice of what neighborhood they will live in. It kind of reminded me of the situation in Cuba.

You do see this:

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But it seemed that there was more housing like this:

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Bear Soldier South

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Wakpala

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Wakpala

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Here’s what the Standing Rock website says about the housing situation:

The Standing Rock Housing Authority constructs and manages over 650 homesfor Tribal members living on the reservation. This includes homes on scattered sites built through the HUD Mutual Help home ownership program on individual land or Tribal land leased for homesites. The other housing in the districts is low-income HUD Low Rent for individual Indian residents in reservation communities. As private housing stock is limited, some of the Standing Rock members own their own homes in the rural areas through other private financing. The Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Service have some housing available in McLaughlin and McIntosh for their employees.The Tribe plans to build a number of apartment complexes in the future.

The need for housing is great on Standing Rock. The Tribe is looking into Habitat for Humanity homes and the government Home Grant project The number of persons per household in the Standing Rock Service Area is 4.60 compared to 3.27 for the State of North Dakota and 3.27 for the State of South Dakota. The number of persons per family for U.S. All Races is 3.80.

Social Customs

Sometimes, when you are looking at one thing about a group of people, in this case domestic or other interpersonal violence, it’s easy to lose track of the more basic, and beautiful things about their culture. What I was touched by was the fact that people ascribed great meaning to small gestures or events, such as siting an eagle in the sky, or getting a small gift of tobacco from a visitor.  

I also found people’s appreciation for the earth and its inhabitants profoundly spiritual, no matter what other behaviors they exhibited on top of that.

When we were going around with the journalists, Tannekkia suggested that we take people either a pouch of tobacco or some coffee (Folgers seems to be the only brand around, by the way). So we did, and you could see by people’s faces that this small gesture made a big difference.

For example,as he was setting up a photo shoot at Georgia’s house on the Cheyenne River Reservation, Stephane gave her husband Norman a cigarette, which he thought Norman would smoke. Instead, he put it behind an eagle feather he had propped up inside of a picture in the kitchen so that he could pray on it the next time he was inspired to do so (usually outside in nature).

Here is the cigarette under the eagle feather:

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Two other things common in people’s homes are star quilts and dried prairie turnips.

Here, Rhea sews a star quilt, which she will sell on the Reservation. Some people also sell them on the Internet, at sites like eBay.

Woman sewing star quilt

From what people told me, the turnips are more for decoration, unless you’re really hungry and bother to soak them.

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This is just a taste of what is hidden just below the surface of all the poverty and sickness on Indian reservations.

The Reservation as a Network of Kin and Fictive Kin

Another lovely thing about the Lakota people is their system of fictive kin, as anthropologists would call it. People easily “take” people as adopted brothers, sisters, mothers, fathers, etc. You can become someone’s adopted relative by ceremony or just by them saying so. Tannekkia’s father-in-law, for exampl, “took her as his daughter”, so she thought of and referred to him as her father even after her divorce. It did get me a little confused though when people would talk about all these brothers and sisters, sometimes saying “adopted” as a preface and sometimes not. It seemed to me that everyone had adopted kin that they took seriously as such.

I also thought it was lovely that people always used kinship terms when referring to someone they were either close with or respected a lot, perhaps for being an elder. For example, I became auntie to Tannekkia’s kids. However, even with Georgia’s two foster daughters, the youngest one, who was eight, would call her older sister, who was 17, “sister.” Elders are usually called Auntie, Uncle, or Grannie or Grandpa. I really liked that.

Isaac jan09

Tannekkia’s four year old Isaac playing in the back yard.

Tanekkia and Vaughn Edward

Tannekkia and her son Vaughn Edward. Cute kids, eh!

Interpersonal Violence

Yes, this is an endemic problem on all reservations, along with alcoholism, drug abuse, diabetes, cancer, and heart disease, etc. Standing Rock was especially bad because it only had 2 officers operating in a place the size of Connecticut. So, people had a lot of impunity, especially if they were near the border town of Mobridge. All you had to was cross the Missouri River, or Lake Oahe, and you were out of the tribe’s jurisdiction.

This was in my face as soon as I got there. Tannekkia and her brother, who live in college housing on the Sitting Bull campus, had been woken up early in the morning a night or two before I arrived by a woman next door who had been battered by her son. She was visiting, and they both started to drink. Well, he ended up punching and kicking her so hard in one of her eyes that it burst. Tannekkia and her brother separtely described the woman as crying, with one eye crying tears and the other one crying blood. That visual was hard to shake. They also told me that it had taken 20 or 30 minutes to convince her to call the police because she was afraid she would get into trouble for being drunk, even though she probably will never see out of that eye again.

The kid finally got arrested two weeks after the incident. The case is being passed up to the federal level (read, FBI) due to the severity of the woman’s injuries.

As if that weren’t enough, the woman in the photo told us a story of how she had been brutally raped and beaten in 1980 – even her pelvis was broken, and she had been dragged around behind a pick up truck. Although she wouldn’t admit it, her current husband was also beating her (he had broken her arm a month or two before, but it had healed before we got there), and they both drank.

Her attacker had gotten 18 years in jail but when he was released, he came to live in her neighborhood, and due to the housing shortage she cannot move away from him or the three pedophiles that live in the neighborhood. She seemed to have PTSD to me, judging by the way she was acting when she was telling this story. I would too, and, I thought, I’d probably drink as well.

The woman’s daughter, she told us, had been a victim of a horrific incident of domestic violence that involved her husband locking her in the basement naked for 2 weeks, and so severely beating her that she suffered brain injuries. After 2 years she still suffers occasional seizures.

And, this is the neighborhood where Jackie Brown Otter lives, remember, with the sister, Ivy (whose Lakota name is Pretty Bird Woman) who was found raped and murdered. Well, there were two more cases of young women being raped, murdered and thrown into the field behind the complex in previous years as well.

And all of this takes place within a social context where people gossip so much about each other that it has destroyed all trust, so it’s very difficult for people to work together to do things like have a healing circle.  

That last element really had me stumped.

In my opinion, having done research on culture and trauma, the community really needs to start paying attention to PTSD much more seriously, since PTSD is also directly related to increased personal violence, depression, and self-medicating behaviors, like drug and alcohol abuse. This is a cycle that began with the boarding schools, and genocide before that, and now it has gone on for generations.

Wellbriety Journey 2009

I like this new movement started by White Bison in Colorado. It’s called the Wellbriety movement, and it uses Native American cultural tools to help people overcome their addictions and other problems. I have an article about it on the Pretty Bird Woman House blog.

This year they are embarking on a cross-country trip called the Wellbriety Journey of Forgiveness. It for one is going to ask President Obama to issue an apology for sending Native Americans to boarding schools. There is precedent for this in Australia and Canada, so it’s not a far-fetched request. However, on the advice of a group of elders, they will be forgiving the U.S. whether or not the government issues an apology. Pretty interesting. It starts to get at the root of some of the cultural trauma that is the original source of the cycle of violence we see on reservations today.

I will not say that I have any kind of in depth knowlege after two weeks on the reservation in the winter, so I’d like to go back in the summer and see what I think then. It’s a very interesting and beautiful place, even though a lot of things about it area also pretty depressing.  

Indian Mascots & Death Threats to a 15 yr. old

( – promoted by navajo)

The FBI told us that American Indians are still the most assaulted in hate crimes, and I had thought there that “some or many will not admit that violence against Native Americans is made more probable because of the institutionalized racism that is American Indian sports teams mascots, even if it is true – and it probably is.”

Well, it is. Death threats against a 15 year old have spawned, because a coward published a 15 year old American Indian’s name in a newspaper.


A local businessman placed a quarter-page ad in the local newspaper explicitly naming and targeting Eli Cordero, the young student who originally brought the issue to the school board.

The brave young man spoke out, his relatives supported him, and they got the school to do away with the institutionalized racism that is American Indian mascots at their school.



Since that time, the 15 year old has received death threats and his family has been harassed. Death threats were also made against the child of a school board member who voted to remove the imagery. Local police began escorting school board members to and from school board meetings. Some citizens of Carpinteria shouted racial epithets at John Orendorff, a Native American Army Reserve colonel who spoke at a school board meeting in favor of removing the racist imagery.

These ignorant and potentially violent individuals had a poll that asked “SHOULD THE TRUSTEES WHO VOTED IN FAVOR OF REMOVING OUR MASCOT BE REMOVED FROM OFFICE?” One can’t vote no, “it’s closed.”


An organization called “Recall CUSD – Warrior Spirit Never Dies” (http://www.recallcusd.org), has waged a largely successful campaign to discredit and oust the school board members who supported the anti-mascot measure. Having successfully installed pro-mascot sympathizers on the school board, there is now a petition to rescind the earlier decision and keep the racist imagery at the public high school. On January 27th, local Native American people organized a protest to voice their objection to the measure, and were met with verbal abuse by drivers and passers-by. One protestor was hit with a rock thrown by an adult man shouting obscenities. This occurred despite the presence of a representative of the federal justice department, who was sent from Los Angeles to ensure proper police conduct and the safety of the demonstrators. Many local Native Americans, while supporting the anti-mascot effort, refused to join the protest, fearing violent reprisals by the townspeople.

I get it, better keep quiet about this if you’re an American Indian, or you support the efforts of American Indians to end the institutionalized racism that is American Indian mascots.

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Otherwise, they’ll publish children’s names in papers, scream hate speech, and deal out death threats.

Petition: Stop Land Run Re – Enactments (Edited)

( – promoted by navajo)


Stop Land Run Re – Enactments in Oklahoma Public Schools

WHEREAS, S.P.I.R.I.T is working for the rights of Oklahoma Indians, all American Indians, Indigenous people and the peaceful solution to all differences; and

WHEREAS, the Oklahoma History and US History does not provide the whole and true history of Oklahoma Indians or American Indians (Native Americans), and

WHEREAS, re-enacting the Land Run in public schools and in communities in Oklahoma is demeaning and humiliating to Oklahoma Indians, and

– snip –

NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED, that the undersigned and S.P.I.R.I.T, the group formed to help American Indians with matters such as these, formally requests the Oklahoma School Boards, Department of Education, Legislators and public officials to abolish the Land Run re-enactments held annually in this state.

http://www.ipetitions.com/peti…


Source

At the time the US government believed that Americans would never need the land of the Great Plains, and adopted a Permanent Indian Frontier policy, declaring the land to the west of the Mississippi as Indian Territory ‘forever’.

Colonial Education is the reason “Oklahoma History and US History does not provide the whole and true history of Oklahoma Indians or American Indians (Native Americans).” Colonial Education is defined as the following: “As a by-product of colonization, the colonizing nation implements its own form of schooling within their colonies.”

The concept of Colonial Education also involves the “idea of assimilation,” which


…is important when dealing with colonial education. Assimilation involves those who are colonized being forced to conform to the cultures and traditions of the colonizers. Gauri Viswanathan points out that “cultural assimilation (is)…the most effective form of political action” (Viswanthan 85). She continues with the argument that “cultural domination works by consent and often precedes conquest by force” (85). Colonizing governments realize that they gain strength not necessarily through physical control, but through mental control. This mental control is implemented through a central intellectual location, the school system.

Furthermore, Colonial Education very likely has been reinforced by the CIA.

Source


http://books.google.com/books?…

The CIA also developed remarkably close ties to journalism and, during the period 1947 – 1977, some 400 American journalists “secretly carried out assignments” for the agency, according to a classic investigative study by Carl Berstein…CIA influence extended to book publication…

The article states that it’s not specifically pertaining to “American Indian politics,” but does explore what it calls “close connections” with the CIA’s influence over some journalism and book publications in academia with the fact that the “victors have been writing the history.”

What pertinent historical facts that are left out in Colonial Education pertaining to stopping the Land Run Re -Enactments? Let’s answer that with another question. Where are the American Indians?  

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Was there another forced location to “make room” for the settlers? One wonders what “means other than a run” relates to. Back to our initial question, “Where are the American Indians?” Let’s start by citing the fact that there were actually five Land Runs, not just one; consequently, at least one was “chaotic” and at times violent.

Source

Land Runs, Lotteries and Auction 1889 -1906


What is popularly known as the “Land Run”, was five land runs, a land lottery and finally a land auction. Prior to each Land Run the US government surveyed and platted 160 acres tracts for the first settler to reach to stake claim.

Below are the seven events

APR 22 1889
  Oklahoma Territory’s First Land Run.

SEP 22 1891
Iowa, Sac, Fox, Pottawatomie, and Shawnee Lands, opened by land run.

APR 19 1892
Cheyenne and Arapaho land opened by land run.

SEP 16 1893
Cherokee Outlet opened by land run.

MAY  3 1895
Kickapoo lands opened by land run.

AUG  1 1901
Wichita-Caddo and Comanche, Kiowa and Apache lands, opened by a “land lottery”

DEC 1906
Big Pasture lands opened by bids.


Source

The land run was chaotic, with people on foot, bicycles, horses, and wagons. Conflicts raged over who reached a plot of land first and were sometimes settled violently because of the lack of law and order in the West. Cheating also occurred – those who slipped through the US Army lines along the territory’s border to find the best plots before the race began were nicknamed ‘Sooners’.

One still wonders if there was another forced location to “make room” for the settlers. Furthermore, what does “any violent resistance with the allotment process” mean? For there was military action at notable times.


Source

In 1887 the Dawes Severalty Act called for an end to reservations. The act established the Dawes Commission (not created until 1893), which broke up the communal reservations and distributed individual land allotments. The measure created considerable distress, as it destroyed traditional Indian life and invited land fraud.

Called upon to deal with any violent resistance with the allotment process, the army also found itself in another law enforcement role as it attempted to capture David Payne’s   capture these armed parties of squatters and escort them back to Kansas. But the would-be settlers’ demand for free land finally succeeded. As a result, the army was in 1889 made responsible for regulating the Unassigned Lands land run in central Oklahoma. The army was again called upon to prevent fraud by “Sooners” and claim jumpers during the Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation run of 1892 and the Cherokee Outlet land run of 1893. Overseeing the 1893 land run represented the last duty of the old frontier army.

1901:


In response to this appeal, a troop of United States Cavalry arrived from Ft. Reno in January, 1901, and the leaders of the movement were placed under arrest. Several of them including Crazy Snake were indicted in the United States court for seditious conspiracy, to which, pleas of guilty were made.

As per Colonial Education, the land theft resulting from the Boomer Movementis not generally taught, and neither is the fact that Indian Territory would have been a state all its own.  

So, I still wonder…

“Where are the American Indians in the Land Run Monument that cost approximately $5,000,000?” (Approximate quote before video below starts)

Land Run at the Bricktown Canal Pictures, Images and Photos

Hence, I’d really like you to sign this petition.


Stop Land Run Re – Enactments in Oklahoma Public Schools

WHEREAS, S.P.I.R.I.T is working for the rights of Oklahoma Indians, all American Indians, Indigenous people and the peaceful solution to all differences; and

WHEREAS, the Oklahoma History and US History does not provide the whole and true history of Oklahoma Indians or American Indians (Native Americans), and

WHEREAS, re-enacting the Land Run in public schools and in communities in Oklahoma is demeaning and humiliating to Oklahoma Indians, and

– snip –

NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED, that the undersigned and S.P.I.R.I.T, the group formed to help American Indians with matters such as these, formally requests the Oklahoma School Boards, Department of Education, Legislators and public officials to abolish the Land Run re-enactments held annually in this state.

http://www.ipetitions.com/peti…

Poem on “Native Americans into the Apostolic Fold” & Joel’s Army

( – promoted by navajo)

http://www.talk2action.org/sto…

Photobucket

Is there a way to reach out to “Native Americans (being brought) into the Apostolic fold” while the Anti-Indian Movement exists? I haven’t a clue, only to share a story and a poem I wrote a long time ago. I don’t know what needs to be said, yet saying nothing doesn’t feel right either, because the concept of Spiritual Warfare has become synonymous with redemptive violence in theory.

Let me start by sharing a story.


So off the man went in search of this plant. First, he searched around the town, then he started his searching abroad. While this man was searching, Iktomi went to this man’s family and became friendly with them. The farther this man went to search, the friendlier Iktomi got with his family.

After a year had passed the man came back with the plant Iktomi had asked for, but Iktomi was no where to be found. So the man decided to take the plant back to his house and wait. But when he returned home, he returned to an empty house. His wife and child were nowhere to be seen All he seen was a note written by Iktomi.

The note told of how he, Iktomi, went to his family after the man started searching for personal gain. Being as proud as you are, as selfish as you could be, when you left to obtain personal gain you lost everything you had. This was the final line of the note.

“Efforts to bring Native Americans into the Apostolic fold are repeated throughout the country including Alaska.” What does it mean, though?


http://www.talk2action.org/sto…

In Oklahoma a combination of leaders from the New Apostolic Reformation and Intercessors for American are training Native Americans in spiritual warfare and “Christian military” training. These efforts to bring Native Americans into the Apostolic fold are repeated throughout the country including Alaska.

“Spiritual warfare” connotates taking  “control of the earth from the devil and an array of demons.”

Would “God’s avenging army” commit violence, believing they are the “body of Christ” in order to force “peace” on earth so Jesus will return?



http://www.splcenter.org/intel…

Joel’s Army followers, many of them teenagers and young adults who believe they’re members of the final generation to come of age before the end of the world, are breaking away in droves from mainline Pentecostal churches. Numbering in the tens of thousands, they base their beliefs on an esoteric reading of the second chapter of the Old Testament Book of Joel, in which an avenging swarm of locusts attacks Israel. In their view, the locusts are a metaphor for Joel’s Army.

Despite their overt militancy, there’s no evidence Joel’s Army followers have committed any acts of violence. But critics warn that actual bloodletting may only be a matter of time for a movement that casts itself as God’s avenging army.

I wrote a poem a long time ago that relates to this mindset, but not these actions. The mindset is illogical, so maybe an illogical poem might get through, albeit a slim chance.


The pitch and intensity of the military rhetoric of this branch of the global Dominionist movement has substantially increased since the beginning of 2008,” writes The Discernment Research Group, a Christian watchdog group that tracks what they call heresies or cults within Christianity. “One can only wonder how long before this transforms into real warfare with actual warriors.”

Let me quote something positive first.


http://www.nativeamericans.com…

Out of the Indian approach to life there came a great freedom, an intense

and absorbing respect for life, enriching faith in a Supreme Power, and

principles of truth, honesty, generosity, equity, and brotherhood as a guide

to mundane relations.

Black Elk, Oglala Sioux Holy Man

1863-1950

And now I’ll share the old poem.

The Meaning

An eon past,

A blink for God’s eye

I drowned in the Sea of Dead Souls.

Swarmed they in the blood of my ancestors –

Neither in Heaven nor in the Abyss resting.

But like Shadows in the night –

Danced they o’er my soul.

My bodies pried open –

Only a little evil entering at a time

Until the Apocalypse,

So it appeared –

Like a misty reflection upon water.

An eon past,

A blink for God’s eye

The Devil unlocked my soul –

With the key I had lost possession of.

The Sun was dim –

I was beside myself in soul.

My senses belonged not to me,

But to the Prince of Darkness.

An eon past in suffering, torment and anguish,

But what about the key which unlocked my soul –

From whence I looked upon Pestilence

And said it was good?

The key,

Yes the key to my soul.

In that Dark Night I demanded

An explanation from my Lord.

“I walk and am weary; I seek but do not find.

My wings are made of iron –

Why hast thou forsaken me?

Thy rivers run deep as the

Land of Milk and Honey.

Why, my Lord –

Do I suffer so Night and Day?”

I remembered the key used by evil to unlock my soul.

“I can see thy Holy Angels of the Quarters.

I can commune with them and serve them, thus serve thee –

My Lord.”

The Lord of Heaven answered,

“Why do you think I allowed Beelezebub to use the key?

The meaning is the suffering.”



Shadow Of The Wind

Every day is an inquisition

Who are you? What are you? Why?

I’m alive, I belong, I’ll be back

It’s a half truth, still a whole lie

In the garden of good and evil

You’ll come, but you know

The spider only spins

The Shadow of The Wind

The Shadow of The Wind

————————————————–

My relatives, come back home. Do not think the Creator feels no pain and the Earth Mother’s heart doesn’t break and isn’t breaking. It would be better to stand on one square foot of your land in dignity than to follow their foolishness into the redemptive violence they are preparing for. Here’s the connection, and I strongly urge you to read “‘Joel’s Army'” and omnicide in the name of God.” One more thing, when they proclaim it’s time to burn your medicine bundles, tell them to burn their Bibles first.


After a year had passed the man came back with the plant Iktomi had asked for, but Iktomi was no where to be found. So the man decided to take the plant back to his house and wait. But when he returned home, he returned to an empty house. His wife and child were nowhere to be seen All he seen was a note written by Iktomi.

The note told of how he, Iktomi, went to his family after the man started searching for personal gain. Being as proud as you are, as selfish as you could be, when you left to obtain personal gain you lost everything you had. This was the final line of the note.


http://fwe.cwis.org/2008/10/17…

The Anti-Indian Movement in the United States and Canada began in the late 1960s as a reactionary movement against efforts by Indian leaders to reclaim their rights under treaties with both Canada and the United States. Reactionary is the key term to describe this movement.

Paralleling the Anti-Indian Movement and using it to stoke bigotry on and near Indian reservations non-Indian groups began to form in the 1970s opposing Indian governments and the claims of rights by Indian peoples. Ne0-Nazis, survivalists, environmental bigots and religious zealots slowly combined forces politically organizing against Indian tribes. Bigoted, anti-democratic and white supremacist groups sought to take advantage of the attacks on Indians and began building support for their efforts from individuals resenting Indian people.