Freeing Peltier: Ben Carnes to Fast in Hopes of Meeting Obama

( – promoted by navajo)

Since Obama was willing to have a beer with a professor and an officer of the law over racial issues, why then shouldn’t he meet with Ben Carnes to discuss freeing Leonard Peltier?


As a result of Leonard Peltier’s recent PAROLE DENIAL, Sundance Chief Ben Carnes, a member of the Choctaw Nation, will go to Washington, stand & Fast in front of the White House between September 5 – 12, 2009, in hopes of securing a meeting with President Obama.

I’ve been thinking about how and when Obama could pull it off, and use it as a distraction to pass the Public Option in Health Care.

Let us start with the assumption that Obama would, if politically, he could. Assuming he would, could he use freeing Peltier as a distraction method to secure the Public Option through the process everyone is already discussing? I was thinking that he could just do it as quietly as possible, but it wouldn’t be quiet and timing is everything in politics. Here’s what I’m thinking.

First, he gets the paperwork already in place, to where all he has to do is sign it. He does so very quietly. Second, Ben Carnes shows up for his fast on September 5th. Obama waits and lets the publicity start over the fast; however, he uses it as cover for one last attempt at bipartisanship publicly, but he has everything set in place to push the public option to the next step(s). The outcry from Progressives would supply cover for both processes of securing the Public Option and freeing Leonard Peltier. Whatever step that is, about the third day he sends an invitation to Ben Carnes who is fasting. There are three things Obama can accomplish at once at this point with Native Americans, while having been given some space to secure the Public Option.

By asking Ben Carnes what he would like to eat and who he would like to come get him, it would show respect and help relations with the Tribal Nations. Of course security would have to be there, but they wouldn’t be “bringing him in,” they’d be taking him to dinner after a shower was provided. Two, the dinner would be a distraction for the ones against the Public Option, because it would carry the news cycle while Obama takes the next step to push the Public Option. Everyone would have to do their part at this point to secure media coverage. Remember how they passed the Patriot and Military Commissions Acts? They rewrote it at night and had a vote on it the next morning. I’m not suggesting to do that literally, but use it. Now for the third thing.

What better day to free Peltier than on his 65th birthday, September 12th? This goes with the cycle Obama is a genius at: he brings it up, angers all the people I can’t stand, seems like he backs out, then something happens. If he invites Carnes it will upset some, the ones I can’t stand, but instead of looking like he’s changing his mind, all he has to do is let the natural course of events unfold. He frees Peltier on September 12th, having given the public about four days to forget about it.

I’m not a political strategist and this may be a foolish plan. If so or not so, since Obama actually reads as opposed to his predecessor, please offer suggestions and modifications in the comments. The main idea is to help Obama with a plan wherein he can free him. We must, must, find the best political strategy to offer the President in regards to freeing Leonard Peltier.



A Native man should always be clean and sober, for he knows there is still more work to do !

Rise with the Sun to pray. Pray alone and pray often. The Great Creator will listen, if you only speak.

From all generations of the past, here now in the present and the unborn generations of the future, the Creator from Sacred Time, Creation Time, First Man and First Woman Time, made all Native People a Holy People.

It is important that we as Native People maintain good self-esteem, self-worth and self-value.

We cannot attack ourselves, beat ourselves up and pound ourselves for crimes we have never committed.

Our Prayer to the Creator represents a different kind a power, a different kind of strength, a different kind of energy.

Stand up with pride when you pray to Creator. Stand with Honor before Creator. Be Proud to be Spiritually alive on the Earth Mother, and thankful and honored to stand before Creator, rather than bowing down like a slave.

All prophecy can be changed. There are things that may happen under the present conditions of our world, but these conditions do not have to stay the way they are, or deteriorate to a more desperate situation.

Native People offer a spiritual solution to the world’s problems.

Many people are interested in the message of Native Spirituality because they are aware of the despairing circumstances of our world and the fact that we must all make changes in order to survive globally.

We offer people hope for a peaceful world by sharing our Spiritual paths with them. We are not selling our ceremonies, or our traditions; we are sharing wisdom.

With Creator’s World Renewal Medicine cycle soon approaching, it is predicted that all First Nation People shall return to our traditional Native ways. Native people will spiritually transform North America back into harmony and balance.

Native and non Native People who walk in the Spiritual ways of the Ancestors will be in control of the Americas.

Native people see the Sun as our Father. The highest of the Earth Mother’s energies are in the morning when Father Sun is rising in the East.

Native people know that morning is the best time to pray for as Father Sun rises, we can place all problems and issues into the past. Native people give spiritual thanks daily for the energy and power of Father Sun.

The purest Spiritual medicine in the World of humankind is of course, the Great Creator of All Things, and the blessing of Father Sun when it rises each morning in the East.

When we as Native people pray, it permits us to have the Creator’s Blessings of healing and understanding, in turn creates peace and love, and brings the full effect of Creator’s harmony and balance to the Earth Mother.

Wado and A-ho, Brothers and Sisters

Mike (Ali) Raccoon Eyes Kinney





In Bar Harbor, Maine, Annie Mae Aquash became involved in the Teaching and Research in Bicultural Education School Project (TRIBES), a program designed to teach young Indians about their history. She soon moved to Boston where she met members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) who were protesting against the Mayflower II celebration at Boston Harbor, boarding and seizing the ship on Thanksgiving Day of 1970. Anna Mae was active in creating the Boston Indian Council (now the North American Indian Center of Boston).

It was also at that time that she met her second husband, Nogeeshik Aquash, from Walpole Island, Canada. They traveled to Pine Ridge together in 1973 to join AIM in the 71-day armed re-occupation of Wounded Knee, which is where they were married by Wallace Black Elk. A photo of their wedding can be found in the book Voices From Wounded Knee (1974).

She was also involved in the 1972 Trail of Broken Treaties march on Washington, D.C. that led to the occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters, and armed occupations by AIM and other indigenous warriors at Anicinabe Park in Kenora, Ontario in 1974 and the Alexian Brothers Novitiate at Gresham, Wisconsin, in 1975. [1]

By the spring of 1975, Anna Mae “was recognized and respected as an organizer in her own right and was taking an increasing role in the decision-making of AIM policies and programs,” according to her biographer, Johanna Brand. [1]

She was personally close to AIM leaders Leonard Peltier and Dennis Banks. She worked until her death for the Elders and Lakota People of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota. [1]


On February 24, 1976, Aquash was found dead by the side of State Road 73 on the far northeast corner of the Pine Ridge Reservation, about 10 miles from Wanblee, South Dakota, close to Kadoka. Her body was found during an unusually warm spell in late February, 1976 by a rancher, Roger Amiotte.[2] The first autopsy (reports are now public information) states: “it appears she had been dead for about 10 days.” The Bureau of Indian Affairs’ medical practitioner, W. O. Brown, missing the bullet wound on her skull, stated that “she had died of exposure.” [1]

Subsequently, her hands were cut off and sent to the Federal Bureau of Investigation headquarters in Washington, D.C. for fingerprinting. Although federal agents were present who knew Anna Mae, she was not identified, and her body was buried as a Jane Doe.

On March 10, 1976, eight days after Anna Mae’s burial, her body was exhumed as the result of separate requests made by her family and AIM supporters, and the FBI. A second autopsy was conducted the following day by an independent pathologist from Minneapolis, Dr. Garry Peterson. This autopsy revealed that she had been shot by a .32 caliber bullet in the back of the head, execution style.[3]


On March 20, 2003 two men were indicted for the murder of Anna Mae Pictou Aquash: Fritz Arlo Looking Cloud (a homeless Lakota man) and John Graham (aka John Boy Patton), a Southern Tutchone Athabascan man from Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada. Although Theda Clark, Graham’s adopted aunt, is also alleged to have been involved, she has not been indicted.

In August 2008, a federal grand jury indicted a third man, Vine Richard “Dick” Marshall, with aiding and abetting the murder. It is alleged that Graham, Looking Cloud and Clark had taken Anna Mae to Marshall’s house where she was held just prior to her being driven to her death. This is based on testimony given by Marshall’s wife, Cleo Gates, at Looking Cloud’s trial. Marshall is alleged to have provided the murder weapon to Graham and Looking Cloud. Marshall had previously been incarcerated for 24 years for the shooting death of man in 1975. He was paroled from prison in 2000. Marshall was a bodyguard for Russell Means at the time of Aquash’s murder.[2]

On February 8, 2004 Arlo Looking Cloud was tried before a U.S. federal jury and five days later was found guilty. On April 23, 2004 he was given a mandatory sentence of life in prison. Although no physical evidence linking Looking Cloud to the crime was presented, a videotape was shown in which Looking Cloud admits to being at the scene of the murder but claims that he was unaware that Aquash was going to be killed. In that video, in which Looking Cloud is interviewed by Detective Abe Alonzo of the Denver Police Department and Robert Ecoffey, the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Law Enforcement Services, taped on March 27, 2003, he states that Graham was the triggerman.[4] Looking Cloud appealed his conviction.[5] On August 19, 2005, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit affirmed the judgment of conviction. 419 F.3d 781. Other witnesses testifed that Looking Cloud had confessed his involvement to them, including his childhood friend Richard Two Elk, Troy Lynn Yellow Wood, John Trudell, and Aquash’s two daughters.[3]

On June 22, 2006 John Graham’s extradition to the United States to face charges on his alleged involvement in the murder was ordered by Canada’s Minister of Justice, Vic Toews. Graham appealed this order and was held under house arrest, with conditions. In July 2007, a Canadian court denied his appeal, and upheld his extradiction order to the U.S. On December 6, 2007 the Supreme Court of Canada denied Graham’s appeal of his extradition. He is presently being held in jail in Rapid City, South Dakota awaiting trial on first degree murder charges. He will be tried together with Marshall.[4]

Graham adamantly denies any involvement in the death of Anna Mae. He claims that the U.S. government threatened to name him as the murderer of Anna Mae if he “didn’t co-operate”. Claiming that he last saw Annie Mae on a drive that took them from Denver to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, where he left her at a “safe house” (in his own words, in an interview with Antoinette Nora Claypoole), Graham explains why he believes he is being charged as her murderer:


The FBI showed up at my home in the Yukon, and asked me all kinds of questions about Anna Mae and the death. They were trying to say I was there, or I knew about it, or I was aware of it. And I had to tell them I wasn’t aware, I wasn’t around there and I wasn’t involved in her killing at all.

And they wanted me to name leadership that would have given the order to that effect, to kill Anna Mae. And they were trying to tell me they would put me in the witness protection program, they would change my identity, they would relocate me if I would go to testify in front of the federal Grand Jury in South Dakota against the AIM leadership.

So I told them I couldn’t do that because it never happened.

I never, ever received orders of any kind like that from any of the AIM leadership. And so I wouldn’t do it; I wouldn’t cooperate with them.

And they left. Then they came back a year or so later and said…. if I didn’t cooperate with them to put this information on the AIM leadership, then I would be facing all these charges myself.”

The question of Graham’s innocence or guilt has divided AIM and AIM leadership, with some (including John Trudell and Russell Means) arguing that he was, in fact, the triggerman and others arguing that he is merely a scapegoat.

Leonard Peltier, America’s best known American Indian prisoner, has made five public statements on the U.S. government’s case against Looking Cloud and Graham. In his first public writing on the case, in 1999, he stated:

” I have not said anything up until now because I do not want to be involved in an investigation carried out in part, by Robert Ecoffey and the RCMP.

Ecoffey was responsible for much of the terror and corruption that existed on Pine Ridge in the early 70’s. The RCMP, working with the FBI, submitted a fabricated statement against me over a year after I was arrested by them in Canada.

This statement has been used to justify my continued incarceration. Who would trust such sources to carry out an investigation into one of the many, many, people who were murdered in conjunction with the FBI on Pine Ridge during that era?

I did not want to be involved in this, but now it looks like I must submit a public statement documenting my stance because I very much fear that innocent people will be railroaded as I have, into prison, and the governments of Canada and the U.S. will be happy to have given AIM the image of a vicious and corrupt terrorist organization which we absolutely were not. ”


Subsequent to these statements, on February 2, 2005, a communiqué was issued through the Leonard Peltier Defense Committee (LPDC) by Robert Robideau, Co-Director of the LPDC. The communiqué stated:

” There is compelling evidence that has recently come to our attention regarding John Graham that compels Leonard Peltier to dissasociate [sic] himself and the Leonard Peltier Defense Committee from John Graham and the John Graham Defense Committee… Leonard wants to make it very clear he wants justice to run its course and that he wants to also make it clear that he had no involvement in this matter and hence cannot associate himself with those alleged to have committed this crime against Indian people. ”


In a February 17, 2005, press statement Robert Robideau admitted that the February 2 statement was not issued by Leonard Peltier. He describes a phone conversation he had with Dennis Banks, saying, “Dennis wanted to know, ‘Did Leonard issue this Statement?’ I told Dennis no that I was issuing the statement because I know that not only the FBI was setting him up but also you [Dennis Banks].” [8]

In a letter from Leonard Peltier to Jennifer Wade of Amnesty International in Vancouver, postmarked May 4, 2007, Peltier explains his position on the matter:

” Do I support Bob [Robideau] in his efforts to get John [Graham] railroaded into prison? Hell No! I¹d be a goddamn hypocrite if I did. Because I know just about as much as Bob knows about Anna Mae’s murder and that is not a goddamn thing. I know Bob is full of shit and that if the truth be known he did not even know her. He my have spoken a casual Hello or something like that, otherwise he did not know her. ”


Robert Robideau had previously resigned from the Leonard Peltier Defense Committee in 2004 because of the committee and Peltier’s support for John Graham. “I won’t be a party to the LPDC or to Leonard if he is not going to condemn these people,” said Robideau in an interview with the magazine In These Times. [10]

Graham has refused to take a polygraph test,[11] something neither requested by the courts, his attorneys or the Canadian government. An independent group of women known as the Indigenous Women for Justice, convinced of Graham’s guilt, demanded that he “take a test”.

One of Anna Mae’s daughters, Denise Maloney Pictou is the Executive Director of the Indigenous Women for Justice[12], who are convinced of Graham’s guilt. She has stated that she believes her mother was killed by AIM members who “thought she knew too much. She knew what was happening in California, she knew where the money was coming from to pay for the guns, she knew the plans, but more than any of that, she knew about the killings.”[13] Aquash’s other daughter, Debbie Pictou Maloney, is a Constable with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and has been active in the Annie Mae Justice Fund.[14]

Denise Maloney Pictou claims that Paul DeMain, managing editor of News from Indian Country, arranged (through Richard Two Elk) for Arlo Looking Cloud to call her at home. She claims that Looking Cloud confessed to her the story that has become known as “The FBI story.” Neither Debbie nor Denise personally knew Looking Cloud at the time and cannot verify that the caller was indeed him, although he mentioned speaking to the daughters in his videotaped testimony of March 27, 2003.[15]

The case is rife with rumor. Paul DeMain stated that Anna Mae was killed in part because, she knew that Leonard Peltier actually killed the agents. Peltier sued in an attempt to force DeMain and News From Indian Country to reveal the confidential sources upon which this statement was based upon. Shortly after the trial of Arlo Looking Cloud, during which KaMook Nichols testified that Peltier had bragged to her, her sister and Annie Mae about shooting the agents, Bob Robideau on behalf of Leonard Peltier entered into negotiations with DeMain in order to have the lawsuit dismissed. (see testimony of KaMook Nichols:

The current investigation into Anna Mae’s murder and original research from which Pictou bases some of her conjecture came from the efforts of Anna Mae’s second cousin, Robert Pictou-Branscombe. Branscombe originally began his efforts in the early 1990s, receiving at least some of his “ground-breaking information” from a Denver Police Department detective named Abe Alonzo.

There are many theories about who may have been behind the murder of Anna Mae. John Trudell fingers Dennis Banks, stating in both the 1976 Butler and Robideau trial and the Looking Cloud trial that Banks told him about the killing before the body had been identified.[16] In Dennis Banks’ autobiography, Ojibwa Warrior, he states that he was informed by John Trudell that the body that had been found was Annie Mae. Banks states that he did not know until that time that Aquash had been killed.

Although Arlo Looking Cloud did testify in a video that he was present at the murder and that John Graham pulled the trigger, Looking Cloud did admit on the tape that he was making his statement while under the influence of “a little bit of alcohol.”[17] However, trial testimony showed that Looking Cloud also confessed to a number of other individuals in various times and places.[3]

In Looking Cloud’s appeal, filed by attorney Terry Gilbert who has replaced his trial attorney Tim Rensch, Looking Cloud has retracted his videotaped confession stating that it was false. He is appealing on the grounds that his trial counsel was ineffective in that he failed to object to the introduction of his videotaped statement, failed to object to hearsay statements of Anna Mae Aquash, failed to object to hearsay instruction for the jury, and failed to object to leading questions by the prosecution to Robert Ecoffey.[18] The U.S. 8th Circuit Court of Appeals denied Looking Cloud’s appeal.[5]

Though some are alleged to have believed Anna Mae to be a federal agent, no documentary evidence has emerged proving that she worked for the federal government (COINTELPRO).[citation needed]


1.Anna Mae Aquash, Letter from jail (1975) [19]

2.Michael Donnelly, Getting Away with Murder. (2006) [20]

3.Antoinette Nora Claypoole, Interview with John Graham, Southern Tutchone; conducted at the studios of KPFK/Pacifica Radio in Los Angeles) . (2004) [21]

4.Robert Robideau, There is compelling evidence…. (2005) [22]

5.Indigenous Women for Justice, Man Indicted for Anna Mae’s Murder Refuses to take Lie-Detector Test. (2004) [23]

6.Paul DeMain, An interview with Denise Pictou-Maloney on the death of her mother, Annie Mae Aquash. (2004) [24]

BIA interview w/Arlo Looking Cloud….


1 The Life and Death of Anna Mae Aquash by Johanna Brand (1993) Toronto: J. Lorimer

2. “U.S. indicts Richard Marshall in Aquash murder case”, News from Indian Country,… document index

4.Trial for 1975 murder of Canadian woman set for February in South Dakota

5.Looking Cloud Appeal

Claypoole, Antoinette Nora (1999). Who Would Unbraid Her Hair: The Legend of Annie Mae. Anam Cara Press. ISBN 0-9673853-0-X.[25] http://www.antoinettewritings….

Voices from Wounded Knee, 1973, In the Words of the Participants (1974). Rooseveltown, New York: Akwesasne Notes. ISBN 0-914838-01-6.

Hendricks, Steve (2006). The Unquiet Grave: The FBI and the Struggle for the Soul of Indian Country. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-735-0.

Smith, Charlie (2007). John Graham says Native chiefs under FBI spell. The Georgia Straight. July 12, 2007

Posted in Uncategorized

Normalizing Fascism Inch by Inch

( – promoted by navajo)

To start, let’s put Apocalyptic Christianity into a historical perspective.

Native American Holocaust – Sex, Race and Holy War. Excerpts from the book: American Holocaust by David Stannard Oxford University Press, 1992

From the moment of its birth Christianity had envisioned the end of the world. Saints and theologians differed on many details about the end, but few disagreements were as intense as those concerned with the nature and timing of the events involved. There were those who believed that as the end drew near conditions on earth would grow progressively dire, evil would increase, love would diminish, the final tribulations would be unleashed-and then suddenly the Son of Man would appear: he would overcome Satan, judge mankind, and bring an end to history. Others had what is generally thought to be a more optimistic view: before reaching the final grand conclusion, they claimed, there would be a long reign of peace, justice, abundance, and bliss; the Jews would be converted, while the heathens would be either converted or annihilated; and, in certain versions of the prophecy, this Messianic Age of Gold would be ushered in by a Last World Emperor-a human saviour-who would prepare the way for the final cataclysmic but glorious struggle between Good and Evil, whereupon history would end with the triumphant Second Coming.

Trail Of Tears: Moving Beyond The Myth Of America

Crossposted at Progressive Historians

Are there generalized demonizations of liberals within the genre of fundamentalist Christianity?

The liberal media is not only the devil’s best device for corrupting human society; it’s his most diabolical device.

I believe Satan is behind all liberal movements.

Liberals Must

Liberal Democrat’s Satanic Overlord

These liberals, from Nancy Pelosi’s home, consider morality and religion dangerous. They openly protest and fight against efforts to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, teen pregnancy, drug abuse, and suicide.


Who but Satan could run a city and a political party that fights against morality, and specifically considers efforts to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, teen pregnancy, drug abuse, and suicide “fascist” and dangerous?

Ship of fools: Johann Hari sets sail with America’s swashbuckling neocons

“A few of these prominent liberals who are trying to demoralize the country,” she says. “Just take a couple of these anti-war people off to the gas chamber for treason to show, if you try to bring down America at a time of war, that’s what you’ll get.”
She squints at the sun and smiles. “Then things’ll change.”

‘The Surge Won’t Work, But Concentration Camps Might Do The Trick’

Make no mistake: those means were cruel. I have stated previously that I endorse cruel things in war â?” to eschew them is folly. The British achieved victory over the Boers by taking their women and children away to concentration camps, by laying waste to the countryside, and by dotting the veld with small garrisons in blockhouses at regular intervals.

Read these two excerpts and draw your own conclusions, remembering thatNazi War Criminals came to the U.S. after WWII.Temporarily, substitute the word “Liberal” for the word “Jew” in an effort to draw correlations from past to present. To accentuate, I mean temporarily. These are amongst the most evil words ever spoken. They are from the time of the Jewish Holocaust. Mussolini’s “Doctrine of Fascism” is included afterwards. If the rhetoric of now weren’t so comparable to the rhetoric of then and even glorifying it, then I wouldn’t think it would be appropriate. It is appropriate to today on American soil in a comparison of the rhetoric, yet some say we are inching closer and closer.
There are instances, such as the Rwandan Genocide, in which it is completely comparable. I can’t accentuate enough the spirit of respect and appropriate context in which it must be compared.

Continuing, Hagee has stated indirectly that it is not “Jews” (who are “The apple of God’s eye,” he said) who are “poisoned,” it is “liberals” who are “poisoned.” Hagee and those like him are against the ideas of liberalism, and have demonized people with liberal philosophies. Brace yourself as you read “The Decent Jew” by the Nazi Hanns Oberlindober from the year 1937 and the “Doctrine of Fascism” by Mussolini himself from the year 1932 (bold and underline mine).

Kingdom Coming:

The Rise of Christian Nationalism. Michelle Goldberg. p. 73

“The Decent Jew.” By the Nazi Hanns Oberlindober. 1937.

To the following source:

The “Decent” Jew A Letter to an Englishman, 1937

Despite the sensitivity of the democrats to the world’s moaning and groaning, the warmongering incitement of the so-called world press and the agonized howls of those of your nature and religion, the National Socialist people’s and state leadership has only done its simple duty to the German people, namely to investigate and determine the results and consequences that the “good Germans” and “decent Jews” have left behind for the German people, and to ensure that there will never again be a time of unlimited or concealed Jewish domination.

I say Jewish domination intentionally, for there is no more dreadful tyranny than when world Jews enslave their host people through their willing, bribed, and obedient democratic lackeys.

Fascism is definitely and absolutely opposed to the doctrines of liberalism, both in the political and the economic sphere.

Thomas Jefferson:

If our house be on fire, without inquiring whether it was fired from within or without, we must try to extinguish it.

There’s a fire to put out.

(Bold mine)

The Christian Right and the Rise of American Fascism

Dr. James Luther Adams, my ethics professor at Harvard Divinity School, told us that when we were his age, he was then close to 80, we would all be fighting the “Christian fascists.”

The warning, given to me 25 years ago, came at the moment Pat Robertson and other radio and televangelists began speaking about a new political religion that would direct its efforts at taking control of all institutions, including mainstream denominations and the government. Its stated goal was to use the United States to create a global, Christian empire. It was hard, at the time, to take such fantastic rhetoric seriously, especially given the buffoonish quality of those who expounded it. But Adams warned us against the blindness caused by intellectual snobbery. The Nazis, he said, were not going to return with swastikas and brown shirts. Their ideological inheritors had found a mask for fascism in the pages of the Bible.

– snip –

He saw in the Christian Right, long before we did, disturbing similarities with the German Christian Church and the Nazi Party, similarities that he said would, in the event of prolonged social instability or a national crisis, see American fascists, under the guise of religion, rise to dismantle the open society.
He despaired of liberals, who he said, as in Nazi Germany, mouthed silly platitudes about dialogue and inclusiveness that made them ineffectual and impotent. Liberals, he said, did not understand the power and allure of evil nor the cold reality of how the world worked…

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged

Genocide & Intent Of The Infected Blankets

( – promoted by navajo)

Plains Indian Smallpox

Indian genocide is a controversial subject on the internet and on this site. Genocide and Holocaust are words that are easy to throw around, often to grab a reader’s attention, but proving them is something else. What one group calls genocide, another group may call progress. This statement is used in the same context as the saying…one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.

The argument for Indian genocide is based primarily on letters written by General Jeffery Amherst during the French and Indian War.Letters by General Amherst and Colonel Bouquet mentioning spreading smallpox to Indians does not mean that this was ever carried out.
Assumptions derived from letters and oral traditions are not proof of anything.

Those who condone the above statement must also believe that such indigenous tribes as the Mandan-Hidatsa are liars and incorrect in their oral histories, but what they cannot deny is the intent to commit genocide was in fact there (all bold print is mine).

(c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life designed to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part


By the second half of the century, many of the combatants in America’s wars of empire had the knowledge and technology to attempt biological warfare with the smallpox virus. Many also adhered to a code of ethics that did not constrain them from doing so. Seen in this light, the Amherst affair becomes not so much an aberration as part of a larger continuum in which accusations and discussions of biological warfare were common, and actual incidents may have occurred more frequently than scholars have previously acknowledged.

“Fort Pitt is in good State of Defense against all attempts from Savages,” Bouquet reported, but “Unluckily the small Pox has broken out in the Garrison.”3 By June 16, then, from sources unknown, smallpox had established itself at Fort Pitt. It is likely that Amherst knew of the situation by the end of June.

Bioterrorist Threats: Potential Agents and Theoretical Preparedness

Dr. John Bartlett filled in for Peter Jahrling of USAMRIID for a segment devoted to one of the likely potential bioterrorist agents, smallpox.[2] The use of this agent to intentionally cause human disease dates back to 1754 during the French and Indian War, when infected blankets were given to Native Americans as a “token of good fortune.”

American Indian Prophecies. Kurt Kaltreider, PH.D. pp. 66-67

In 1779, George Washington sent orders to General John Sullivan concerning the need to attack and destroy the Iroquois Nations.

“The immediate objects are total destruction of their settlements, and capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex possible -“

Washington was also an advocate of germ warfare, first introduced by Sir Jeffery Amherst after whom the town of Amherst, Massachusetts, and Amherst College are named. The idea of germ warfare with smallpox was suggested to Colonel Henry Bouquet, after which Colonel Bouquet wrote back:

“I will try to inoculate the [Indians] with some blankets that may fall into their hands, and take care not to get the disease myself. As it is pity to expose good men against then, I wish we could make use of the Spanish method, to hunt them with English dogs, supported by rangers and some light horse, who would, I think, effectually extirpate or remove the vermin.”

About 60 years later, Andrew Jackson took Colonel Bouquet’s advice in his war against the Seminoles. 


During the Seminole War the Federal Soldiers used germ warfare weapons, such as leaving small pox infected blankets for the Seminole to take and catch the disease.
  This was a tried and true tactic of warfare in the Americas. The British attempted this against Washington’s troops at Yorktown and Europeans used germ warfare against native Americans in New England. At Yorktown, the National Park Service explains the role of Slaves as germ warfare weapons in the plaque reproduced here. I guess the incentive for slaves was ‘you’re free if you go cause small pox among American forces … if you survive.’

The fact that Europeans brought the deadly diseases with them, through ship rats who found their way to the indigenous tribes for example, is well established.

Historical Viewpoints. “American Indians And European Diseases.” Alfred W. Crosby pp. 48-49

Whether plague or typhus, the disease went through the Indians like fire. Almost all the seventeenth-century writers say it killed nine of ten and even nineteen of twenty of the Indians it touched –

In short, one does not necessarily have to accept a 90 percent death rate for a given village or area to accept a 90 percent depopulation rate.

So, the European settlers (not all were vicious like this) and General Jeffery Amherst knew what smallpox and the deadly diseases were already doing:depopulating the indigenous people.

First Nation History. Daniel M. Paul

The following is an excellent example of their racist mentality in action. In July 1763, General Jeffery Amherst, the Commander-in-Chief of British forces in North America, sent a memo to Colonel Henry Bouquet, a Huguenot in the service of England, asking:

“Could it not be contrived to send the Smallpox among the disaffected Tribes of Indians?”

Bouquet replied: “I will try to inoculate the Indians with some blankets that may fall into their hands, and take care not to get the disease myself.”

General Jeffery Amherst and those settlers who thought likewise must have asked themselves some very disturbing questions –

Siege of Fort Pitt

(Wikipedia source, read accordingly)

Bouquet agreed, writing to Amherst on 13 July 1763: “I will try to inoculate the bastards with some blankets that may fall into their hands, and take care not to get the disease myself.” Amherst responded favorably on 16 July 1763: “You will do well to inoculate the Indians by means of blankets, as well as every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race.”[2]

As it turned out, however, officers at the besieged Fort Pitt had already attempted to do what Amherst and Bouquet were still discussing.

Maybe they asked, “How can we help speed the process?”

General Amherst and Germ Warfare. Bernhard Knollenberg:


Public Health Issues in Disaster Preparedness: Focus on Bioterrorism. By Lloyd F. Novick:….

Query and Replies: Indians and Smallpox(8 posts)

I have been reviewing the documents in the latest volume of

The Papers of Henry Bouquet which has many interesting texts

on relations with various Native American tribes, and on frontier

warfare. A number of the texts deal with the decision to use

small pox as a deliberate form of germ warfare against the

Indians in the 1760s. I recall much coverage of the decimation

of the Indians by disease during the Columbus anniversaries,

but I am not familiar with the historiography on the deliberate

use of smallpox or other diseases as a weapon–or indeed the

historiography on the origins of germ warfare in general.

Would any of you be able to inform me of sources on this subject?

Thanks in advance. Elizabeth M. Nuxoll. The Papers of Robert Morris

Queens College, CUNY

Smallpox Blankets in History and Legend. Adrienne Mayor:


The Europeans wanted land, gold, silver, coal (in the future), and slave labor.

Since using the indigenous people’s inability to cure themselves of the onslaught of disease didn’t work as well as they wished it would have worked –

A People & A Nation. 4th Edition. p.38

In the pursuit of their conversions, the Jesuits sought to undermine the authority of the villiage shamans (the traditional religious leaders) and to gain the confidence of leaders who could influence others. The Black Robes used a variety of weapons to attain the desired end. Trained in rhetoric, they won admirers by their eloquence. Seemingly immune to smallpox, they explained epidemics among the Native Americans as God’s punishment for sin, their arguments aided by the ineffectiveness of the shaman’s traditional remedies for illness against that deadly disease.

  – perhaps they hoped that death would solve all of their “problems.”


See the reason of my bemusement is that I am a full blooded Oneida “Indian” (I will use that term for simplicity’s sake although “First nations is our prefferred term). For us first nations our heritage and being is well documented and it is imperative to have been listed on a government listing of Indians called the Dawles Rolls?

That the ones of us they couldn’t kill with smallpox infected blankets they packed away on a reservation, robbed of our traditions, language and land.

Colorado professor fabricates Native history – Sunday, June 18, 2006

He (Ward Churchill) then pawned his lies to other scholars.

First, the army wasn’t even posted around our villages at the time Churchill claims. And no proof exists, orally or in text, to show blankets came from a hospital.

But our tribal people have long said the spread of smallpox was intentional.

I recently talked with Gerard Baker, a Mandan-Hidatsa and leading oral historian for our tribes. Baker, park superintendent at Mount Rushmore, is a fluent Hidatsa speaker and comes from a traditional family. He’s also lived and worked at many of our historical village sites along the Missouri.

Baker has talked with tribal elders and spent countless hours looking at the journals of the fur traders. He’s convinced traders deliberately spread smallpox to eliminate us as middlemen in the trade network.

Shawnee History

Only an informer saved the garrison at Detroit, but Forts Niagara and Pitt were surrounded and isolated. In desperation, Amherst wrote the commander at Fort Pitt, Captain Simeon Ecuyer, suggesting he deliberately attempt to infect the Shawnee, Delaware, and Mingo besieging his fort with gifts of smallpox-infected blankets and handkerchiefs. Ecuyer took this as an order and did exactly that.
It proved particularly effective because the Ohio tribes had little immunity having missed the 1757-58 epidemic among the French allies contracted during the capture of Fort William Henry (New York). The Shawnee were fighting the Cherokee in Tennessee at the time, and they carried the disease to them, and then the Shawnee living with the Creek Confederacy. From there it spread to the Chickasaw and Choctaw, and finally the entire southeast. Before it had run its course, the epidemic had killed thousands, including British colonists.

To end this, history is written by the victors and one of the “victor’s” techniques for hiding truth is hiding evidence, as it was in the case of theSand Creek Massacre.

Furthermore, to say “Assumptions derived from letters and oral traditions are not proof of anything” is calling those indigenous people who tell those oral traditions liars. So, I’m grateful for artists who have something to add to this “debate.”


Stories of disease-infected blankets deliberately given to Native Americans surfaced after the first European contact and continue to circulate. The vitality of the “smallpox blanket” story is ensured by documented examples of germ warfare but also by its resonance with the classical Nessus shirt and other poison-garment/deliberate-contamination themes. The moral tension embedded in such tales derives from ambiguous definitions of the Other and boundaries of ethical behavior toward enemies.

Apologists for the Genocide attribute the majority of deaths to the introduction of disease epidemics such as smallpox and measles by unknowing Europeans.

Introducing Manifest Destiny News

( – promoted by navajo)

I apologize for the deceptive title. My main objective in having written this last year was not to create a new blog (Native American Netroots serves as that function). My main objective was and is to encourage people to blog about the issues that are outlined in this essay, and for the reasons stated herein.  

Manifest Destiny News has a simple format, which is to simply select approximately 3 news related items and elaborate on them if it’s “current events affecting American Indians and Native Alaskans.” This is the only format elaborated on, for it is the least time consuming and would allow for the most authors to use the format of “Manifest Destiny News.” Next, I will offer some suggestions, some requests, and explain my justification for this being the beginning of a community effort.

I suggest that if one who feels less than confident about doing this wants or feels a need to do it; that they do it, be open to constructive criticism, and make adjustments if or when necessary. A speaker on the state capitol steps said (paraphrasing), “Those of us who are left and able have a responsibility.” My request is implicit in the suggestion and it is: that professional journalists who can’t or won’t otherwise, join in this effort. The historical justification for the request, is that the press called for the removal and extermination of the Ute for years (see Peter R Decker’s “The Utes Must Go!”) before it actually happened.

Its title drawn from a newspaper advertisement championing the removal of Utes in the Denver Tribune, “The Utes Must Go!” is a powerful true drama of a proud people who suffered from pioneer settlement and racisim, and who also experienced tragedy from misguided intentions, such as Indian Agent Nathan Meeker’s ill-fated attempt to turn Indian hunters into farmers, which brought about tragedy at Milk Creek in 1879.

That showed the enormous power of the press over a long sustained effort, obvious issues aside, to make change. That is what is needed now to turn things around, for if the amount of individuals doing “Manifest Destiny News” or something similar were to increase enough to bring the needed awareness, this time the change could be in a positive direction, instead of the negative direction of the past. And that’s a gross understatement.

New York Herald

Who slew Custer? The celebrated peace policy of General Grant, which feeds, clothes and takes care of the their noncombatant  force while men are killing our troops…the Indian Bureau with its thriving agents and favorites as Indian Traders, and its mock humanity and pretense as piety – that is what killed Custer.

Now, after that trip down memory lane, how much have things changed? In addition, who has things changed for the most, and who have things changed for the least?

Cut Bank officials to listen to Blackfeet concerns at Dec.3 meeting

BROWNING – The mayor and police chief of Cut Bank have been invited to a public meeting next Wednesday evening to listen to allegations of racial discrimination in their border town on the edge of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation.

The meeting was called by Mike Little, who filed a complaint against the city with the Montana Human Rights Bureau. The agreed upon settlement required police officers to go through nondiscrimination training.

Mayor Joni Stewart said the settlement was not an admission of guilt, adding she believes there is not any discrimination in Cut Bank’s city government.

(Bigfoot Memorial Ride begins December 14th)

287-mile ride a rite of passage By JODI RAVE

BEAR SOLDIER, S.D. – When Donaven Yellow of Wakpala, S.D., joined the Spirit Riders, he pledged to ride four years in the Big Foot Memorial Ride, a nearly 300-mile journey dedicated to the Lakota ancestors who died in one of the nation’s most horrific massacres.

On Saturday, he began the fourth journey across the South Dakota prairie with 44 riders who will spend the next two weeks on horseback en route to the Pine Ridge Reservation, picking up others along the way until they number 200.

“Riding for two weeks isn’t easy,” said the 15-year-old Donaven. “A lot of my friends made the same commitment. It gets really cold. You’ve just got to ride it out.

Good things are happening, good things that need support and attention.

New mascot for Colusa High

Colusa High School’s new mascot will be the “RedHawks” starting with the 2011-12 school year, replacing the Redskins moniker that has symbolized the school’s sports teams for eight decades.

Also, Native American journalists need support, and wouldn’t it be nice to see an American Indian as a major news anchor discussing these issues consistently?

Groundbreaking PBS series nears completion

BOSTON – After almost five years of planning and production, a groundbreaking television series depicting more than 350 years of history from an American Indian perspective is scheduled to premiere next spring.

Producers of the award-winning PBS history series “American Experience” are nearing completion of “We Shall Remain” – a five-part series of 90-minute documentary films that will air each week for five consecutive weeks beginning on April 13.

In addition to the films, “We Shall Remain” has a massive multi-media and community outreach component that includes mentoring emerging Native filmmakers, a national library initiative, and a coalition of Native organizations and tribes, historical societies, museums, schools and other groups to plan and sponsor activities that promote understanding of local Native history and contemporary life.

Lastly, wouldn’t it be refreshing to see Native American guest speakers on all those “angry left” television shows? This and all on the right of the page is a very good start to achieving that end. They have to know there’s an audience or more of an audience in order to do it, using common sense. Now back to my initial question, how much have things changed here?


That’s just not good enough, is it?

“Manifest Destiny News,” a community effort, is dedicated to reporting on: current events affecting American Indians and Native Alaskans; history of American Indians and Native Alaskans; Climate Change and solutions to the energy crisis in order to help halt the continuing land theft of American Indian’s and Native Alaskan’s homelands, sacred sites, and to protect Mother Earth; bringing awareness to how the Doctrine of Discovery is still Supreme Court law and bringing about its elimination against all odds; and, supporting the signing of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples by the United States of America.

Netroots Nation Star Quilt – All My Relations

( – promoted by navajo)


Two hundred signatures from the 2008 Netroots Nation in Austin, TX.  Four signatures from noted Native American bloggers:



Winter Rabbit


Speaks Lightning


Meteor Blades


A coin of rutilated quartz decorates the center:


And sixty-eight Austrian crystals decorate the field.  They give a subtle twinkle to the whole.  

Some more sigs:


This quilt is intended to generate online donations for INDN’s List, an organization that supports Native American candidates for public office.  We are still figuring out the logistics of how this will work – but in the meantime, you can donate to INDN’s List here.