The American Indian Horse

( – promoted by navajo)

While the popular image of Plains Indians is that of the horse-mounted warrior and buffalo hunter, the horse as we know it today only came to this continent with the Europeans. It reached the Plains Indians and dramatically changed their ways of life several generations before the Americans invaded the area.  

It should be pointed out that there had been an earlier horse in North America which the early Indian hunters, such as Clovis, had hunted. However, this early horse went extinct with many other large mammals about 8,000 years ago.  

The modern horse spread into the Great Plains from the Spanish settlements in the southwest. While a number of horse-mounted Spanish explorers and gold-seekers had passed through New Mexico during the early 1500s, the horse was actually introduced to the area by the Spanish colonists in 1598. At this time, Juan de Oñate led a large colonizing party-129 soldiers and their families, 10 Franciscan missionaries, 83 wagons, 7,000 cattle, sheep, and goats-into New Mexico and established a colony at San Juan in the upper Rio Grande valley. The Spanish brought with them over 1,500 head of horse and mules: 1007 horses, 237 mares, 137 colts, and 91 mules.

Meeting with leaders from 30 pueblos, Oñate took formal possession of New Mexico for the Spanish and ignored possible Indian ownership of the land. The Indians were told that the Spanish had come to bring them knowledge of God and the Spanish King, on which depended the salvation of their souls and the continuation of the security of their homes. According to the official proceedings:

“Wherefore they should know that there is only one God, creator of heaven and earth, rewarder of the good, whom He takes to heaven, and punisher of the wicked, whom He sends to hell. This God and lord of all had two servants here on earth through whom He governed.”

From the viewpoint of the Spanish, Indians were a form of labor which could be exploited. The success of the Spanish colonies in the Americas was based on this exploitation. Repartimiento was the Spanish policy which gave the Spanish colonists the right to use native labor for religious education. Repartimiento functioned as a part of the Spanish mission system in both the Southwest and in the Southeast. Under this system, labor quotas and the conscription of people to serve on labor gangs were organized through the villages served by the missions (or, from an Indian viewpoint, the villages which served the missions).

Another important part of the Spanish policy was encomienda. This meant that Indian villages were “commended” to the care and protection of an encomendero, a Spaniard who could exact their labor, but as free men (technically) and for pay (technically). In fact the Indians were slaves and the encomenderos spoke of owning their Indians.

With this system of encomiendas or land grants, Spain granted a colonist a certain amount of land which gave the recipient the right to work the land and to collect tribute in the form of goods and services from the Indians who lived within the boundaries of the grants. Each Spanish hacienda had its corps of Indian serfs to till the fields, maintain the livestock, tend the house, and make whatever the master wanted to eat, to wear, or to sell in the growing trade with Mexico. In return for the grant, the colonist was expected to help convert the Indians to Christianity.

Since the Indians worked for the Spanish, this meant that they had to be taught the Spanish ways of farming and caring for the animals. While the Southwestern Indians had been farmers for more than a thousand years, livestock was new to them. From the Spanish they learned how to care for the horses, how to breed them, and how to ride them. They also learned how to make all of the accouterments-bridles, saddles-which were needed in using the horses.

The horse which the Spanish colonists brought with them was a descendent of the Barb-a Moorish horse that originated in North Africa-which had been interbred with Spanish horses during the Moorish occupation of Spain. This was a desert-bred horse that was tough and bred to live on desert grasses. It could cover vast distances between water holes. It was very different from the huge, heavy, grain-fed animal of northwestern Europe and the British Isles.

The breeding of horses in the Spanish occupied areas was regulated by the Council of the Indies. Spanish law also prohibited Indians from owning horses. While the Spanish law allowed the Indians to work around horses, they were not allowed to ride them. It was also forbidden to trade horses to the Indians.

While the Indians became peasants working for the Spanish, the Spanish viewed their own life in New Mexico as being very difficult. In 1608, the Spanish colonists and their Franciscan priests concluded that the area was not profitable and therefore should not be a part of the Spanish empire. They petitioned the Council of the Indies for permission to withdraw from the area. While Spanish authorities were inclined to grant the petition, the inflated reports regarding the number of Indian converts was a major concern. The Franciscans claimed a total of 7,000 converts at this time. If the Franciscans were to withdraw from the area, this would mean that the Indians would be allowed to lapse once again into barbarism. Thus the Spanish Crown decided to support the colonial efforts and to deny the petition.

During this early Spanish colonial period in New Mexico, there were raids by the “nomadic” Indians-Navajo and Apache-in which horses were captured. However, there are no reports of these Indians riding the horses. Without a basic understanding of how to care for a horse, the horse would appear to the Indians to be similar to an elk. Since elk were killed and eaten, it may be presumed that most of the captured horses were used for food rather than for riding.

In 1621, the Spanish governor in New Mexico gave the Spanish ranchers permission to use Pueblo men on horseback to tend the horse and cattle herds. When some of these men escaped from their Spanish vassalage, they took the horses-and the knowledge about how to care for them and ride them-with them. The first official record of horse-mounted Indians was in 1623 when Fray Benavides, a Franciscan, encountered a band of Gila Apache and reported that their war chief was riding a horse.

By 1640, some of the Spanish colonists in New Mexico were violating Spanish law by trading horses to the Apache in exchange for buffalo hides and other pelts. At this time, the Navajo and some of the Pueblos entered into an informal alliance to overthrow the Spanish. In some instances, Pueblo herders turned over their Spanish horse herds to the Navajo. As a result, the Navajo began to wage horse-mounted raids against both the Spanish and the Pueblos.  

A fresh infusion of horses arrived in New Mexico in 1676 when the Franciscans sent Fray Ayala to New Spain to obtain several hundred horses.

In 1680, the Pueblos revolted against the Spanish and drove them out. As a result of this revolt, the large Spanish horse herds were traded from tribe to tribe and began their diffusion into the Great Plains.

Following trade routes from Taos Pueblo, the horse was traded to the Ute, traditional trading partners with Taos. From the Ute, the horse spread out in two directions: to the east and then north through the Comanche and to the west and north through the Paiute and the Shoshone. The Comanche, Paiute, and Shoshone are linguistic relatives of the Ute.

The Comanche moved east into the Southern Plains of Oklahoma and Texas and spread the horse into the Southern Plains tribes. The Comanche quickly became preeminent horse traders and horse-mounted warriors. Once they had acquired familiarity with the horse, the Comanche became well-known for their raids against the Spanish ranches in Texas and northern Mexico to obtain more horses. Years later, they would say that they allowed the Spanish to remain in Texas only to raise horses for them.

The Shoshone introduced the horse to the tribes of the Plateau-the Cayuse, the Nez Perce, and the Salish-speaking Flathead. With the horse, the Plateau tribes now crossed the Rocky Mountains to hunt buffalo in the Great Plains. This put them into conflict with some of the Northern Plains tribes, such as the Blackfoot.

It should be noted that when we talk about the diffusion of the modern horse, we are talking about more than the animal itself. If an Indian who had never seen a horse before were to encounter one in the wild, it would resemble a funny-looking elk. One does not ride an elk in Indian culture: instead, the elk is killed and eaten. Thus the coming of the horse into Indian cultures refers to the cultural package that must come with the horse if it is to be incorporated into the culture as a domesticated animal. This includes the knowledge about how to care for the horse, to ride it, and to make the accessories (saddles and bridles) that are needed.

While the Hollywood stereotype shows Indians riding their horses bareback, in reality the saddle and bridle diffused with the horse. Plains Indians copied the Spanish saddles by stretching green buffalo hide over wooden frames. Later, warriors and hunters developed a kind of “pad” saddle which was a kind of pillow stuffed with hair or grass to which a girth and short stirrups were attached.

Following the Spanish and Moorish custom, Indians mounted horses from the right side. As working animals, the horses were also trained to respond to their rider’s knees. This left the rider’s hands free.

Once the horse had diffused to the Plains, the Indians acquired additional horses by breeding them, by trading for them, and by sending raiding parties to capture them from other tribes and from non-Indians. While there were herds of wild horses on the plains, these wild horse herds were never an important source of horses for the Plains Indians. The wild horses were difficult to catch and to train, and they frequently died soon after captivity.

The horse enabled the Plains tribes to hunt buffalo over a larger area and this, in turn, brought the tribes into more conflict with one another. Prior to the horse, a tribe would cover only 50 miles or so during a hunt, but with the horse this expanded to 500 miles.  As a consequence, war became more frequent. Plains Indian warfare was most frequently carried out by small war parties, often 10 warriors or less. The purpose of this warfare was to capture horses and count coup. Counting coup involved different feats of bravery, often including touching an enemy warrior, taking the weapon from an enemy warrior, and stealing an enemy warrior’s war horse. Warfare rarely involved an entire tribe and was never conducted with the primary purpose of annihilating another people or converting them to a different religion.

Prior to the modern horse, the Plains Indian people had only one domesticated animal: the dog. In the traditional oral histories, the period of time before the coming of the horse is referred to as the dog days. During this time period, the dog served as a beast of burden, pulling a travois made of tipi poles on which many belongings had been placed.  

With the adoption of the horse, the tipi became much larger. Since horses are significantly larger than dogs, they were able to pull a larger travois. Since the travois was made from tipi poles, this meant that the poles could be much longer. Prior to the horse, a typical tipi would be 10-12 feet in diameter and would stand about eight feet high at the center. With the acquisition of the horse, the tipi grew to be 20 or more feet in diameter and as tall as 30 feet at the top of its lodge poles.

20th Century Indian Wars

( – promoted by navajo)

By the end of the nineteenth century, it was commonly believed by scholars, politicians, and the general public that Indians were destined to disappear. In the twentieth century, many scholars continue to write as those Indians did, in fact, disappear by the twentieth century. Since there weren’t supposed to be any Indians in the twentieth century, there weren’t supposed to be any Indian wars in the twentieth century. Yet there are many incidents involving military action against Indians as well as the actions of volunteer groups and law enforcement agencies against Indians that can be considered to be Indian “war” similar to those of the nineteenth century.  

In 1905, army troops were sent in to quell a disturbance among the Navajo. To show that resistance to the “big stick” policies of the Indian Office (later called the Bureau of Indian Affairs) were futile, seven of the Navajo men were sent to Alcatraz prison. There was no trial.

In 1906, there was a dispute among the Hopi over sending children to boarding schools. In one of the Hopi villages, people labeled as “hostiles” by the government refused to send their children to school. The government sent in police to arrest the leaders. The so-called hostiles then moved from Shongopavi and established a new village at Hotevilla. The government then sent in troops to round up all of the Hopi at Hotevilla and marched them to a temporary camp some six miles away. The men were then marched another 40 miles to Keams Canyon where they were chained together and forced to work on a chain gang for the next 18 months. Two of the main leaders of the “hostiles” were permanently banished from the reservation and 17 other leaders were imprisoned at hard labor at Fort Hauchuca, Arizona. According to Indian Commissioner Francis Leupp: the Hopis must learn “that hereafter they will conduct themselves reasonably like white men or be treated as white people treat those of their own number who are forever quarreling and fighting among themselves.”

In 1911, army troops were called in once again to invade the Hopi reservation. The troops were used to force the children of the village of Hotevilla to attend school. Sixty-nine children were placed under military guard and taken to the boarding school at Keams Canyon. The troops then invaded the village of Shongopovi where they captured three more children for the boarding school.

In 1906, 300 Ute under the leadership of Red Cap left the White River Reservation in Colorado headed for South Dakota. The Ute were upset about the allotment of their reservation and increase of non-Indian settlers. In South Dakota, they hoped to form an alliance with the Lakota and with the Crow to stop the allotment program. The army stopped the group and detained them as prisoners of war at Fort Meade, South Dakota. The army was unconcerned that courts had ruled that Indians could not be detained or imprisoned without a trial. Nor was the army concerned that no actual state of war existed at the time. The army viewed the Ute as potential enemy combatants and felt that it had the right to hold them in prison indefinitely.

While the army often ignored due process of law when dealing with Indians, there are cases in which the army did attempt to see due process carried out. In 1915, a Mexican sheepherder was murdered in Colorado and popular opinion assumed that he had been killed by an Indian. The court of public opinion blamed Tsenegar, a Ute Indian, for the death. Subsequently a posse of 26 cowboys crossed into Utah and surrounded the Ute camp of Old Polk. Their supposed goal was to capture Tsenegar who was rumored to be in Old Polk’s group. The cowboys, who were drunk at the time, began firing into the camp with no warning. The Indians had no idea who these men were nor why they were shooting at them. The Indian response was to fire back to distract the cowboys and then to slip away. When the smoked cleared, there were dead on both sides and the Ute had vanished.

In response to this incident, non-Indians began to raise a cry about an “Indian uprising” and to ask for military help. In the meantime, the marshal sent out word that all Indians in the area were to come into Blanding, Utah and surrender. One group of Ute teenagers who had nothing to do with the shootout at Old Polk’s camp walked into Blanding and gave themselves up. Even though they were innocent of any crime except for being Indian, they were handcuffed and imprisoned under armed guard at the Zion Co-op Store.

Because of the anti-Indian sentiment at this time, the military forcibly removed 160 Ute from their Utah homelands and resettled them on the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation in Colorado.

To capture Tsenegar and Old Polk, the military recruited Bi-joshii, a Navajo medicineman. Bi-joshii made contact with Old Polk and Tsenegar. Through the efforts of trader John Wetherhill and his Navajo wife Slim Woman, the Ute “outlaws” peacefully surrendered to General Hugh Scott. According to General Scott:

“My problem was to prevent those four Indians from being legally murdered. White men had been killed and the trial would be in the hands of white men, possibly prejudiced against the Indian, whose land incidentally was wanted.”

General Scott later wrote:

“I believed that the white man had been the aggressor, but this could be proved only by Indian witnesses whose word would not be taken against that of a white man.”

Tsenegar was tried for murder in Denver, Colorado. Concerned about preserving the image of fairness in this case, the judge appointed leading members of the bar to present Tsenegar’s defense. In court Tsenegar dressed in a gray flannel suit with a red necktie and a red flower in his buttonhole. He wore moccasins and a white felt cowboy hat. One breast was covered with dime store medals and on the other he wore a miniature United States flag.

The first witness for the government was John Miller, a Ute. As the witness began to be sworn, the defense attorney objected, claiming that the oath was not binding on a non-Christian. The judge overruled the objection. After seven hours of deliberation the jury found Tsenegar not guilty.

In 1913 there was a rebellion among the Navajo which came to be known as the Beautiful Mountain Uprising. The uprising started when the Indian agent learned that Hatot’cli-yazzie, the son of Ba-Joshii, had three wives in spite of the agent’s edict against plural marriages. Fed by information from the Indian agent, local newspapers painted a picture of the entire Navajo nation in revolt with a horrible massacre impending. To avert this massacre and save the non-Indians, according to the newspaper accounts, military action was needed. In response, the army sent in the cavalry with 261 men and officers to put down the Navajo “hostiles” who were under the leadership of Ba-Joshii. The Navajo force numbered only twelve men.

There are a number of accounts of actions against Indians by militia groups and volunteers (sometimes in the guise of posses). One of these was the Smoked Meat Rebellion of 1909. This incident started when non-Indians complained about the theft of ham from their smokehouses. Assuming that Indians were guilty, authorities from the state of Oklahoma invaded the traditional Creek encampment at Hickory Ground. While the sheriff and his posse take possession of the campgrounds, there is an exchange of gunfire in which several Creek Freedmen (former slaves) were killed.

The sheriff then secured an arrest warrant for Chitto Harjo on the charge of conspiracy. In the raid on Harjo’s house, gunfire broke out, two deputies were killed, and Harjo escaped. The state of Oklahoma raised a militia of more than 1,000 to put down the Smoked Meat Rebellion. The militia attacked the camp at Hickory Ground, killing many Creek Freedmen, but the traditional Creeks had already broken camp and dispersed.

The Smoked Meat Rebellion was not the first time military action had been used against Chitto Harjo’s traditional Creek. In 1901, the army had been called in to put down the Snake Uprising against the allotment act. The cavalry invaded Hickory Ground and arrested Chitto Harjo and about 100 traditional Creek. After several weeks in jail, they were given long prison sentences which were suspended if they promised to be good. In this instance, the cavalry was not called by the Indian agent, but by Creek chief Pleasant Porter.

Another incident at the same time in California was the hunt for Willie Boy which inspired a number of novels and a major movie. It began when Willie Boy, a Chemehuevi, killed William Mike, another Chemehuevi. Willie Boy then “kidnapped” Mike’s daughter Carlotta. Willie Boy and Carlotta then set off across the desert near Banning on foot.

A posse was then organized to track down the couple. Assisting the posse were two Indian trackers: John Hyde (Yaqui) and Segundo Chino (Chemehuevi). Both of the trackers were friends of the Mike family. The Chemehuevi had a special cult of the runners which had stemmed from the need for chiefs to send messages to others quickly. These runners could cross the desert quickly with little or no water. In the pursuit of Willie Boy the trackers noted that his stride covered 5 to 7 feet. It would appear that Willie Boy was a runner in the old Chemehuevi tradition.

According to the official story, Willie Boy killed Carlotta because she was slowing him down and later killed himself because the posse had worn him down and he was out of ammunition. There was some doubt as to how Carlotta really died-in retrospect the evidence seems to suggest that she was killed by gunfire from the posse. The posse burned Willie Boy’s body rather than bringing it back with them. There are some who feel that Willie Boy did not kill himself because the posse wore him out, but rather he killed himself because he wanted to rejoin Carlotta.

Willie Boy and Carlotta had run off together before and Willie Boy had asked William Mike for permission to marry Carlotta. Permission had been denied because Willie Boy and Carlotta were cousins and this would be incest according to Chemehuevi tradition. In addition, William Mike, a well-known medicine man, disliked Willie Boy.  

The press seized upon the story and sensationalized it. The newspaper accounts identified Willie Boy as Paiute. According to the popular newspaper accounts of the incident Willie Boy was drunk and this was the cause of the killing. Willie Boy, however, followed the teachings of the Paiute prophet Wovoka which prohibited the use of alcohol. Willie Boy had a reputation on the reservation for not drinking. The idea of “finding courage in a bottle” makes sense to non-Indians, but does not reflect the cultural reality of the Paiute and Chemehuevi followers of Wovoka.

Not all of the military actions against Indians during the twentieth century took place in the early part of the century. In 1973 there was a standoff between Indians and the military at Wounded Knee, the site of a massacre 82 years earlier. The American Indian Movement (AIM) led a group of traditionals and urban national¬ists in an occupation of the Wounded Knee community. AIM took this action at the request of the Oglala Sioux Civil Rights Organization (OSCRO) led by Pedro Bissonette.

Under the code name Garden Plot, the military played a central role in determining the government strategy in response to the takeover. Military personnel were required to wear civilian clothes and the government vehemently denied the military presence. It was difficult to explain, however, the presence of military tanks, armored personnel carriers, and fighter jets.

While the military publicly denied any role in the siege of Wounded Knee, Army Vice Chief of Staff Alexander Haig ordered two colonels, who are to dress as civilians, to oversee operations there. Army trucks filled with materiel were driven to points near Wounded Knee where the materiel was then transferred to civilian trucks that were then driven to the area by soldiers in civilian dress. The army provided armored personnel carriers, ammunition, rifles, and grenade launchers. The army also sent in a chemical warfare team to train the U.S. Marshals and the FBI. The Air Force provided a jet and three helicopters.

For 71 days Wounded Knee was surrounded by a force of 200 law enforcement (FBI and federal marshals) and military personnel who had armored personnel carrier, airplanes, helicopters, and other military equipment. The night sky at Wounded Knee was filled with the trails of tracer bullets. The military flares were endless: lighting up the sky every night as though it were day. This made it difficult for the occupiers to sleep. In the seventy-one days of Wounded Knee, the government used more flares than it had during the entire war in Vietnam. By the end of the siege the government had fired more than 500,000 rounds of ammunition.

The government attempted to keep the news media away from Wounded Knee. With reports from the FBI informers who were embedded in AIM, the government knew that most of the AIM leaders were together in this remote settlement. The government saw this as an opportunity to wipe out the rebels’ movement. AIM, however, contacted the media through runners who slipped out at night and then returned as guides bringing in reporters and television cameras around the roadblocks.

By the end of the occupation, two of the occupiers had been killed by government fire and one govern-ment agent was paralyzed by a bullet.

Following the incident at Wounded Knee, the actions by AIM and the government have been interpreted in several different ways. Some felt that Wounded Knee was an outburst reflecting the long-standing resentments which Indian people felt after a century of subordination. The government, particularly the FBI and the military, on the other hand, saw it as being tied somehow to Communist Cuba, the Black Panthers, the Irish Republican Army, and the Palestinian Liberation Organization. AIM leaders saw it as a resurgence of American Indians devoted to their ancestral culture.

In spite of the story told by most history books in which the Indian wars end with the nineteenth century, it is evident that armed conflict between Indians and agents of the American government has continued. In fact, these conflicts have continued into the twenty-first century.  

Indian Resistence to the California Missions

( – promoted by oke)

While it is not uncommon for some textbooks to give the impression that the California Native Americans passively accepted the missions, Spanish domination, and conversion to Christianity, this was not the case. In fact, the initial reception of the Franciscans by the California Indians was anything but hospitable. Resistance to the Spanish Franciscans was organized by village chiefs and influential shamans and this resistance was expressed through attacks on both the Spanish soldiers and the Franciscan missionaries. During the first years of the Franciscan mission program the overt hostility of the Indians slowed the rate of the establishment of the new missions and created a reliance on soldiers to protect the Franciscans.

In 1771, Indians attacked the San Gabriel Mission in the Los Angeles basin. The two attacks were triggered by the rape of a Kumi.vit woman by the soldiers who were assigned to protect the Franciscans. One chief was killed and the Spanish soldiers placed his head on a pole as an example to other Indians who might wish to rebel against Spanish authority.  

In 1775, the Kumeyaay at the Mission of San Diego revolted, burning the mission and killing one of the priests. Fearing reprisals from the nearby Spanish presidio, the attackers quickly fled into the interior, taking with them some booty in the form of clothing, trinkets, and religious icons. Spanish troops were called out to capture the ringleaders.

The Spanish priests blamed Satan for the uprising against the San Diego Mission. Father Francisco Palóu wrote:

“The enemy, [Satan] envious and resentful, no doubt because the heathen in that territory were being taken away from him, and because the missionaries, with their fervent zeal and apostolic labors, were steadily lessening his following, and little by little banishing heathenism from the neighborhood of the port of San Diego, found a means to put a stop to these spiritual conquests.”

From an Indian perspective, the rebellion against the oppression of the Spanish mission was the result of forced labor and the rape of several Kumeyaay women. The Indians viewed the Spanish priests as shamans and held them responsible for the disease and misfortune which was befalling them. Thus, the killing of the priest-an evil shaman in the eyes of the Indians-and the removal of sacred objects from the mission was a way of cleansing the land of the spiritual evil that was growing on it.

Spanish investigation revealed that at least fifteen villages took part in the rebellion, including several so-called Christian villages. Leaders of the insurrection were identified as Oroche of Macate, Francisco of Cullamac, Rafael of Janat, and Ysquitil of Abusquel.

In 1776, the Spanish Franciscans selected a number of Ohlone and Costanoan Indians to be flogged and threatened with execution. The action was intended to stop any resistance to their missionary activities.

In that same year, Indians attacked the San Luis Obispo Mission and set fire to the roofs of the buildings.

In 1785, Toypurina (Gabrielino) convinced Indians from six villages to participate in a revolt against the San Gabriel Mission. Toypurina was a medicine woman who was considered to have supernatural powers. At the attack on the Mission, she killed people with her magic, but the priests and soldiers had been warned and the insurgents were arrested. At her trial, Toypurina denounced the Spanish for trespassing on and destroying Indian lands. Another Indian leader, Nicolas Jose, spoke out against the Spanish prohibition of traditional Indian ceremonies. Most of the Indians were sentenced to 20 lashes and Toypurina was deported to the San Carlos Mission. The public flogging of the Indians involved in this revolt was a ritual designed to restore Spanish domination, a common practice throughout Spanish America.

The Mission Indians often rebelled against the Franciscan missionaries with their feet: they ran away from captivity. In 1795, over 200 Costanoan staged a mass escape from Mission Dolores and 280 Indian “converts” fled from the San Francisco Mission.  The following year, another 200 Indians fled from the San Francisco mission. In 1798, 138 Indian “converts” fled from the Santa Cruz Mission. In 1805, 200 Indian “converts” fled from the San Juan Bautista Mission.

In 1811, Nazario, a Mission Indian cook at the San Diego Mission, was subject to 124 lashes. He then poisoned one of the priests. Since the Indians often viewed the Franciscan missionaries as powerful shamans or witches, it was appropriate in Indian culture to poison them as this was the traditional Indian way of dealing with such people.  

In 1812, a group of Indian converts at the Santa Cruz mission murdered a Franciscan missionary because of his plans to punish Indians with a cat-o’-nine-tails with barbed metal on the ends of the leather straps.

In 1824 the Chumash at the La Purísima Mission revolted against the ill treatment and forced labor imposed by the priests and soldiers. The revolt was sparked by the routine beating of an Indian at the Santa Ynez mission.

A force of 2,000 Indians captured La Purísima and were soon bolstered by Indians from Santa Ynez and San Fernando. For more than a month, the Indians who occupied the La Purísima and Santa Ynez missions were able to resist Spanish military attempts to restore order.

The news of the revolt soon reached Santa Barbara and the Indians attacked the soldiers, sacked the mission, and then retreated to the back country.

The Spanish recaptured the missions after four months. The four leaders of the revolt – Mariano, Pacomio, Benito, and Bernarde – were sentenced to 10 years of chain-gang labor.

Another factor in the revolt was the appearance of a twin-tailed comet in the night sky. According to traditional Chumash beliefs, such a sign foretells of great changes which are about to happen.  

In 1828, Mission Indians, under the leadership of Yokuts chiefs Estanislao (Stanislaus) and Cipriano, revolted against the Mexicans in the San Joaquin Valley. Among those joining the revolt were refugees from the Santa Cruz, San José, and San Juan Bautista Missions. Estanislao established a fortified village which was ringed with deep trenches. The Indians were successful in repelling three counterattacks by the Mexican army.

In 1829, Mexican troops attacked Estanislao’s stronghold. After several hours of intense fighting, the Mexicans breached the stockade using canon fire. They then retreated for the night. In the morning, the Mexicans found the Indian camp deserted. Thinking that Estanislao and his rebels had fled to another stockaded village about 10 miles away, the Mexicans attacked the village. They set fire to the stockade and shot all who tried to escape. They found that Estanislao was not among the dead.

Estanislao secretly returned to the Mission San José and asked the priest for a pardon. The priest agreed that he could return to the mission if he promised never to raid again.

In 1830, Christian Indians under the leadership of Francisco Jímenez, the Indian alcalde of the Mission San José, attempted to capture some Indians who had run away from the mission and were living with the Ochejamne Miwok. The Miwok repelled the invaders. Jímenez then recruited the aid of some American trappers, including Kit Carson, who fought the Miwok for an entire day, killing many Indians, and burning the village. They took some captives back to the mission.

Later the Sierra Miwok captured about 60 horses from the American trappers. Kit Carson and others chased the Miwok for over 100 miles into the Sierras. They attacked the Miwok camp, killing eight and taking three children captive. They recaptured most of their horses.

In 1833, American fur trappers found a village of Spanish-speaking Chumash living near Walker Pass. This group of Indians were renegades who fled from the Spanish missions during the 1824 revolt. They were raising corn and had horses.

Action: “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”

“Please help to spread the word that we need to contact our State Representatives to make them aware that HB 2929 will be brought to the floor of the House TODAY for a final vote before being sent to the Governor’s office. We need our legislators to know of our interest in this bill and its passing the House. This is our chance to make a mark in Indian education for our children and grandchildren to meet their needs more effectively by engaging the collaborative energies of this state body to guide the process of dialogue, deliberation, and discussion of how to serve our native students of the state of Oklahoma! Together we can make this happen in the best interest of our people. Aho! Mvto!

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions”

“Please read, act and forward to everyone and anyone, lets get this bill going!

This 52nd legislative session, Oklahoma State Representative AND House Education Committee Chair Ann Coody, from Comanche County has authored HB 2929, the “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”. It reads in part:

The purpose of the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act is to recognize the unique relationship that Oklahoma enjoys with the Indian tribes located within the state and how Native Americans and Indian tribes play a pivotal role in the educational system of the state in light of this special relationship. The further purpose of the act is to establish the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education. The purpose of creating the Council is to promote equitable and culturally relevant learning environments, educational opportunities and instructional material for Native American students enrolled in the public schools of the state. Because of the number of Native American students enrolled in public schools in the state, this objective will positively affect the educational success of all public school students and encourage further government-to-government cooperation between the State of Oklahoma and the sovereign Indian tribes located in Oklahoma .”

and

“A. There is hereby created the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education.

B. The Council shall:

1. Advise the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in educational matters affecting the education of Native American students;

2. Promote equal educational opportunity and improve the quality of education provided to Native American students throughout the state;

3. Advocate for Native American students in the state; and

4. Monitor and evaluate how the public education system of the state impacts Native American students.

C. The Council shall be composed of seventeen (17) members as follows:

1. Five members who shall represent an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

2. Four members who shall represent the tribal education departments of an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

3. One member who shall represent the Oklahoma Council on Indian Education, appointed by the Governor;

4. Two members who shall represent two different statewide organizations representing public school teachers, appointed by the Governor;

5. One member who shall represent Oklahoma tribal colleges, appointed by the Chancellor of Higher Education;

6. The Director of the Native American Cultural and Educational Authority or designee;

7. The Chancellor of Higher Education, or designee;

8. The Director of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education, or designee; and

9. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or designee.

D. Appointments to the Council shall be made by September 1, 2010……..”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

1. CALL AND E-MAIL THE OKLAHOMA LEGISLATIVE MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE ASKING THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

2.  CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR TRIBAL REPRESENTATIVES AND GET THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

3. CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR STATE LEGISLATORS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;Find your legislators: http://www.capitolconnect.com/…

4. CALL AND E-MAIL THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN CAUCUS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;The Native American Caucus Members: http://www.ok.gov/oiac/State-T…

http://ok.gov/oiac/State-Triba…

Full text of the act is here: http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok…

DO THIS FOR THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH, OUR CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED THIS….

MVTO!!!

Oklahoma House of Representatives Common Education Committee:

http://www.okhouse.gov/Committ…

E-mail addresses

anncoody@okhouse.gov

sallykern@okhouse.gov

gusblackwell@okhouse.gov

ed.cannaday@okhouse.gov

tadjones@okhouse.gov

earl.sears@okhouse.gov

danielsullivan@okhouse.gov

sam.buck@okhouse.gov

dougcox@okhouse.gov

joedorman@okhouse.gov

jeanniemcdaniel@okhouse.gov

jabarshumate@okhouse.gov

Oklahoma State Senate Education Committee: http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/

fordj@oksenate.gov

jolley@oksenate.gov

branan@oksenate.gov

brownb@oksenate.gov

cochran@oksenate.gov

easley@oksenate.gov

easonmcintyre@oksenate.gov

gumm@oksenate.gov

halligan@oksenate.gov

lerblance@oksenate.gov

mazzei@oksenate.gov

paddack@oksenate.gov

reynolds@oksenate.gov

sparks@oksenate.gov

stanislawski@oksenate.gov

Sample e-mail:

Dear Honorable Member of the Education Committee:

HB 2929 is a crucial bill for the American Indian youth and children of Oklahoma . This Bill will help address concerns of the American Indian population across the state while correcting wrongs perpetuated by a broken education system.  Please stand up for the unheard population of Oklahoma and support HB 2929 with your vote this legislative session.  Our American Indian youth and children are counting on you. I will gladly discuss my position with you at length should you desire to contact me.  Thank you in advance for your support of HB 2929.  

Thank you,

Name

Address

Contact Information

Thank you, Brenda Golden on behalf of

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions”

(Posted with permission from the author)

Posted in Uncategorized

test


Please help to spread the word that we need to contact our State Representatives to make them aware that HB 2929 will be brought to the floor of the House TODAY for a final vote before being sent to the Governor’s office. We need our legislators to know of our interest in this bill and its passing the House. This is our chance to make a mark in Indian education for our children and grandchildren to meet their needs more effectively by engaging the collaborative energies of this state body to guide the process of dialogue, deliberation, and discussion of how to serve our native students of the state of Oklahoma! Together we can make this happen in the best interest of our people. Aho! Mvto!

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions


Please read, act and forward to everyone and anyone, lets get this bill going!

This 52nd legislative session, Oklahoma State Representative AND House Education Committee Chair Ann Coody, from Comanche County has authored HB 2929, the “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”. It reads in part:

The purpose of the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act is to recognize the unique relationship that Oklahoma enjoys with the Indian tribes located within the state and how Native Americans and Indian tribes play a pivotal role in the educational system of the state in light of this special relationship. The further purpose of the act is to establish the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education. The purpose of creating the Council is to promote equitable and culturally relevant learning environments, educational opportunities and instructional material for Native American students enrolled in the public schools of the state. Because of the number of Native American students enrolled in public schools in the state, this objective will positively affect the educational success of all public school students and encourage further government-to-government cooperation between the State of Oklahoma and the sovereign Indian tribes located in Oklahoma .”

and

“A. There is hereby created the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education.

B. The Council shall:

1. Advise the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in educational matters affecting the education of Native American students;

2. Promote equal educational opportunity and improve the quality of education provided to Native American students throughout the state;

3. Advocate for Native American students in the state; and

4. Monitor and evaluate how the public education system of the state impacts Native American students.

C. The Council shall be composed of seventeen (17) members as follows:

1. Five members who shall represent an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

2. Four members who shall represent the tribal education departments of an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

3. One member who shall represent the Oklahoma Council on Indian Education, appointed by the Governor;

4. Two members who shall represent two different statewide organizations representing public school teachers, appointed by the Governor;

5. One member who shall represent Oklahoma tribal colleges, appointed by the Chancellor of Higher Education;

6. The Director of the Native American Cultural and Educational Authority or designee;

7. The Chancellor of Higher Education, or designee;

8. The Director of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education, or designee; and

9. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or designee.

D. Appointments to the Council shall be made by September 1, 2010……..”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

1. CALL AND E-MAIL THE OKLAHOMA LEGISLATIVE MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE ASKING THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

2.  CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR TRIBAL REPRESENTATIVES AND GET THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

3. CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR STATE LEGISLATORS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;Find your legislators: http://www.capitolconnect.com/…

4. CALL AND E-MAIL THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN CAUCUS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;The Native American Caucus Members: http://www.ok.gov/oiac/State-T…

http://ok.gov/oiac/State-Triba…

Full text of the act is here: http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok…

DO THIS FOR THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH, OUR CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED THIS….

MVTO!!!

Oklahoma House of Representatives Common Education Committee:

http://www.okhouse.gov/Committ…

E-mail addresses

anncoody@okhouse.gov

sallykern@okhouse.gov

gusblackwell@okhouse.gov

ed.cannaday@okhouse.gov

tadjones@okhouse.gov

earl.sears@okhouse.gov

danielsullivan@okhouse.gov

sam.buck@okhouse.gov

dougcox@okhouse.gov

joedorman@okhouse.gov

jeanniemcdaniel@okhouse.gov

jabarshumate@okhouse.gov

Oklahoma State Senate Education Committee: http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/

fordj@oksenate.gov

jolley@oksenate.gov

branan@oksenate.gov

brownb@oksenate.gov

cochran@oksenate.gov

easley@oksenate.gov

easonmcintyre@oksenate.gov

gumm@oksenate.gov

halligan@oksenate.gov

lerblance@oksenate.gov

mazzei@oksenate.gov

paddack@oksenate.gov

reynolds@oksenate.gov

sparks@oksenate.gov

stanislawski@oksenate.gov

Sample e-mail:

Dear Honorable Member of the Education Committee:

HB 2929 is a crucial bill for the American Indian youth and children of Oklahoma . This Bill will help address concerns of the American Indian population across the state while correcting wrongs perpetuated by a broken education system.  Please stand up for the unheard population of Oklahoma and support HB 2929 with your vote this legislative session.  Our American Indian youth and children are counting on you. I will gladly discuss my position with you at length should you desire to contact me.  Thank you in advance for your support of HB 2929.  

Thank you,

Name

Address

Contact Information

Thank you, Brenda Golden on behalf of

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions

(Posted with permission from the author)

Posted in Uncategorized

Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act


Please help to spread the word that we need to contact our State Representatives to make them aware that HB 2929 will be brought to the floor of the House TODAY for a final vote before being sent to the Governor’s office. We need our legislators to know of our interest in this bill and its passing the House. This is our chance to make a mark in Indian education for our children and grandchildren to meet their needs more effectively by engaging the collaborative energies of this state body to guide the process of dialogue, deliberation, and discussion of how to serve our native students of the state of Oklahoma! Together we can make this happen in the best interest of our people. Aho! Mvto!

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions


Please read, act and forward to everyone and anyone, lets get this bill going!

This 52nd legislative session, Oklahoma State Representative AND House Education Committee Chair Ann Coody, from Comanche County has authored HB 2929, the “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”. It reads in part:

The purpose of the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act is to recognize the unique relationship that Oklahoma enjoys with the Indian tribes located within the state and how Native Americans and Indian tribes play a pivotal role in the educational system of the state in light of this special relationship. The further purpose of the act is to establish the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education. The purpose of creating the Council is to promote equitable and culturally relevant learning environments, educational opportunities and instructional material for Native American students enrolled in the public schools of the state. Because of the number of Native American students enrolled in public schools in the state, this objective will positively affect the educational success of all public school students and encourage further government-to-government cooperation between the State of Oklahoma and the sovereign Indian tribes located in Oklahoma .”

and

“A. There is hereby created the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education.

B. The Council shall:

1. Advise the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in educational matters affecting the education of Native American students;

2. Promote equal educational opportunity and improve the quality of education provided to Native American students throughout the state;

3. Advocate for Native American students in the state; and

4. Monitor and evaluate how the public education system of the state impacts Native American students.

C. The Council shall be composed of seventeen (17) members as follows:

1. Five members who shall represent an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

2. Four members who shall represent the tribal education departments of an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

3. One member who shall represent the Oklahoma Council on Indian Education, appointed by the Governor;

4. Two members who shall represent two different statewide organizations representing public school teachers, appointed by the Governor;

5. One member who shall represent Oklahoma tribal colleges, appointed by the Chancellor of Higher Education;

6. The Director of the Native American Cultural and Educational Authority or designee;

7. The Chancellor of Higher Education, or designee;

8. The Director of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education, or designee; and

9. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or designee.

D. Appointments to the Council shall be made by September 1, 2010……..”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

1. CALL AND E-MAIL THE OKLAHOMA LEGISLATIVE MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE ASKING THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

2.  CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR TRIBAL REPRESENTATIVES AND GET THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

3. CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR STATE LEGISLATORS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;Find your legislators: http://www.capitolconnect.com/…

4. CALL AND E-MAIL THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN CAUCUS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;The Native American Caucus Members: http://www.ok.gov/oiac/State-T…

http://ok.gov/oiac/State-Triba…

Full text of the act is here: http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok…

DO THIS FOR THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH, OUR CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED THIS….

MVTO!!!

Oklahoma House of Representatives Common Education Committee:

http://www.okhouse.gov/Committ…

E-mail addresses

anncoody@okhouse.gov

sallykern@okhouse.gov

gusblackwell@okhouse.gov

ed.cannaday@okhouse.gov

tadjones@okhouse.gov

earl.sears@okhouse.gov

danielsullivan@okhouse.gov

sam.buck@okhouse.gov

dougcox@okhouse.gov

joedorman@okhouse.gov

jeanniemcdaniel@okhouse.gov

jabarshumate@okhouse.gov

Oklahoma State Senate Education Committee: http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/

fordj@oksenate.gov

jolley@oksenate.gov

branan@oksenate.gov

brownb@oksenate.gov

cochran@oksenate.gov

easley@oksenate.gov

easonmcintyre@oksenate.gov

gumm@oksenate.gov

halligan@oksenate.gov

lerblance@oksenate.gov

mazzei@oksenate.gov

paddack@oksenate.gov

reynolds@oksenate.gov

sparks@oksenate.gov

stanislawski@oksenate.gov

Sample e-mail:

Dear Honorable Member of the Education Committee:

HB 2929 is a crucial bill for the American Indian youth and children of Oklahoma . This Bill will help address concerns of the American Indian population across the state while correcting wrongs perpetuated by a broken education system.  Please stand up for the unheard population of Oklahoma and support HB 2929 with your vote this legislative session.  Our American Indian youth and children are counting on you. I will gladly discuss my position with you at length should you desire to contact me.  Thank you in advance for your support of HB 2929.  

Thank you,

Name

Address

Contact Information

Thank you, Brenda Golden on behalf of

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions

(Posted with permission from the author)

Posted in Uncategorized

Action: Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act


Please help to spread the word that we need to contact our State Representatives to make them aware that HB 2929 will be brought to the floor of the House TODAY for a final vote before being sent to the Governor’s office. We need our legislators to know of our interest in this bill and its passing the House. This is our chance to make a mark in Indian education for our children and grandchildren to meet their needs more effectively by engaging the collaborative energies of this state body to guide the process of dialogue, deliberation, and discussion of how to serve our native students of the state of Oklahoma! Together we can make this happen in the best interest of our people. Aho! Mvto!

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions


Please read, act and forward to everyone and anyone, lets get this bill going!

This 52nd legislative session, Oklahoma State Representative AND House Education Committee Chair Ann Coody, from Comanche County has authored HB 2929, the “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”. It reads in part:

The purpose of the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act is to recognize the unique relationship that Oklahoma enjoys with the Indian tribes located within the state and how Native Americans and Indian tribes play a pivotal role in the educational system of the state in light of this special relationship. The further purpose of the act is to establish the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education. The purpose of creating the Council is to promote equitable and culturally relevant learning environments, educational opportunities and instructional material for Native American students enrolled in the public schools of the state. Because of the number of Native American students enrolled in public schools in the state, this objective will positively affect the educational success of all public school students and encourage further government-to-government cooperation between the State of Oklahoma and the sovereign Indian tribes located in Oklahoma .”

and

“A. There is hereby created the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education.

B. The Council shall:

1. Advise the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in educational matters affecting the education of Native American students;

2. Promote equal educational opportunity and improve the quality of education provided to Native American students throughout the state;

3. Advocate for Native American students in the state; and

4. Monitor and evaluate how the public education system of the state impacts Native American students.

C. The Council shall be composed of seventeen (17) members as follows:

1. Five members who shall represent an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

2. Four members who shall represent the tribal education departments of an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

3. One member who shall represent the Oklahoma Council on Indian Education, appointed by the Governor;

4. Two members who shall represent two different statewide organizations representing public school teachers, appointed by the Governor;

5. One member who shall represent Oklahoma tribal colleges, appointed by the Chancellor of Higher Education;

6. The Director of the Native American Cultural and Educational Authority or designee;

7. The Chancellor of Higher Education, or designee;

8. The Director of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education, or designee; and

9. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or designee.

D. Appointments to the Council shall be made by September 1, 2010……..”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

1. CALL AND E-MAIL THE OKLAHOMA LEGISLATIVE MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE ASKING THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

2.  CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR TRIBAL REPRESENTATIVES AND GET THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

3. CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR STATE LEGISLATORS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;Find your legislators: http://www.capitolconnect.com/…

4. CALL AND E-MAIL THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN CAUCUS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;The Native American Caucus Members: http://www.ok.gov/oiac/State-T…

http://ok.gov/oiac/State-Triba…

Full text of the act is here: http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok…

DO THIS FOR THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH, OUR CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED THIS….

MVTO!!!

Oklahoma House of Representatives Common Education Committee:

http://www.okhouse.gov/Committ…

E-mail addresses

anncoody@okhouse.gov

sallykern@okhouse.gov

gusblackwell@okhouse.gov

ed.cannaday@okhouse.gov

tadjones@okhouse.gov

earl.sears@okhouse.gov

danielsullivan@okhouse.gov

sam.buck@okhouse.gov

dougcox@okhouse.gov

joedorman@okhouse.gov

jeanniemcdaniel@okhouse.gov

jabarshumate@okhouse.gov

Oklahoma State Senate Education Committee: http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/

fordj@oksenate.gov

jolley@oksenate.gov

branan@oksenate.gov

brownb@oksenate.gov

cochran@oksenate.gov

easley@oksenate.gov

easonmcintyre@oksenate.gov

gumm@oksenate.gov

halligan@oksenate.gov

lerblance@oksenate.gov

mazzei@oksenate.gov

paddack@oksenate.gov

reynolds@oksenate.gov

sparks@oksenate.gov

stanislawski@oksenate.gov

Sample e-mail:

Dear Honorable Member of the Education Committee:

HB 2929 is a crucial bill for the American Indian youth and children of Oklahoma . This Bill will help address concerns of the American Indian population across the state while correcting wrongs perpetuated by a broken education system.  Please stand up for the unheard population of Oklahoma and support HB 2929 with your vote this legislative session.  Our American Indian youth and children are counting on you. I will gladly discuss my position with you at length should you desire to contact me.  Thank you in advance for your support of HB 2929.  

Thank you,

Name

Address

Contact Information

Thank you, Brenda Golden on behalf of

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions

(Posted with permission from the author)

Posted in Uncategorized

Action: Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act


Please help to spread the word that we need to contact our State Representatives to make them aware that HB 2929 will be brought to the floor of the House TODAY for a final vote before being sent to the Governor’s office. We need our legislators to know of our interest in this bill and its passing the House. This is our chance to make a mark in Indian education for our children and grandchildren to meet their needs more effectively by engaging the collaborative energies of this state body to guide the process of dialogue, deliberation, and discussion of how to serve our native students of the state of Oklahoma! Together we can make this happen in the best interest of our people. Aho! Mvto!

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions

Please read, act and forward to everyone and anyone, lets get this bill going!

This 52nd legislative session, Oklahoma State Representative AND House Education Committee Chair Ann Coody, from Comanche County has authored HB 2929, the “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”. It reads in part:

The purpose of the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act is to recognize the unique relationship that Oklahoma enjoys with the Indian tribes located within the state and how Native Americans and Indian tribes play a pivotal role in the educational system of the state in light of this special relationship. The further purpose of the act is to establish the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education. The purpose of creating the Council is to promote equitable and culturally relevant learning environments, educational opportunities and instructional material for Native American students enrolled in the public schools of the state. Because of the number of Native American students enrolled in public schools in the state, this objective will positively affect the educational success of all public school students and encourage further government-to-government cooperation between the State of Oklahoma and the sovereign Indian tribes located in Oklahoma .”

and

“A. There is hereby created the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education.

B. The Council shall:

1. Advise the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in educational matters affecting the education of Native American students;

2. Promote equal educational opportunity and improve the quality of education provided to Native American students throughout the state;

3. Advocate for Native American students in the state; and

4. Monitor and evaluate how the public education system of the state impacts Native American students.

C. The Council shall be composed of seventeen (17) members as follows:

1. Five members who shall represent an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

2. Four members who shall represent the tribal education departments of an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

3. One member who shall represent the Oklahoma Council on Indian Education, appointed by the Governor;

4. Two members who shall represent two different statewide organizations representing public school teachers, appointed by the Governor;

5. One member who shall represent Oklahoma tribal colleges, appointed by the Chancellor of Higher Education;

6. The Director of the Native American Cultural and Educational Authority or designee;

7. The Chancellor of Higher Education, or designee;

8. The Director of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education, or designee; and

9. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or designee.

D. Appointments to the Council shall be made by September 1, 2010……..”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

1. CALL AND E-MAIL THE OKLAHOMA LEGISLATIVE MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE ASKING THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

2.  CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR TRIBAL REPRESENTATIVES AND GET THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

3. CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR STATE LEGISLATORS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;Find your legislators: http://www.capitolconnect.com/…

4. CALL AND E-MAIL THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN CAUCUS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;The Native American Caucus Members: http://www.ok.gov/oiac/State-T…

http://ok.gov/oiac/State-Triba…

Full text of the act is here: http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok…

DO THIS FOR THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH, OUR CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED THIS….

MVTO!!!

Oklahoma House of Representatives Common Education Committee:

http://www.okhouse.gov/Committ…

E-mail addresses

anncoody@okhouse.gov

sallykern@okhouse.gov

gusblackwell@okhouse.gov

ed.cannaday@okhouse.gov

tadjones@okhouse.gov

earl.sears@okhouse.gov

danielsullivan@okhouse.gov

sam.buck@okhouse.gov

dougcox@okhouse.gov

joedorman@okhouse.gov

jeanniemcdaniel@okhouse.gov

jabarshumate@okhouse.gov

Oklahoma State Senate Education Committee: http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/

fordj@oksenate.gov

jolley@oksenate.gov

branan@oksenate.gov

brownb@oksenate.gov

cochran@oksenate.gov

easley@oksenate.gov

easonmcintyre@oksenate.gov

gumm@oksenate.gov

halligan@oksenate.gov

lerblance@oksenate.gov

mazzei@oksenate.gov

paddack@oksenate.gov

reynolds@oksenate.gov

sparks@oksenate.gov

stanislawski@oksenate.gov

Sample e-mail:

Dear Honorable Member of the Education Committee:

HB 2929 is a crucial bill for the American Indian youth and children of Oklahoma . This Bill will help address concerns of the American Indian population across the state while correcting wrongs perpetuated by a broken education system.  Please stand up for the unheard population of Oklahoma and support HB 2929 with your vote this legislative session.  Our American Indian youth and children are counting on you. I will gladly discuss my position with you at length should you desire to contact me.  Thank you in advance for your support of HB 2929.  

Thank you,

Name

Address

Contact Information

Thank you, Brenda Golden on behalf of

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions

(Posted with permission from the author)

Posted in Uncategorized

Action: Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act


Please help to spread the word that we need to contact our State Representatives to make them aware that HB 2929 will be brought to the floor of the House TODAY for a final vote before being sent to the Governor’s office. We need our legislators to know of our interest in this bill and its passing the House. This is our chance to make a mark in Indian education for our children and grandchildren to meet their needs more effectively by engaging the collaborative energies of this state body to guide the process of dialogue, deliberation, and discussion of how to serve our native students of the state of Oklahoma! Together we can make this happen in the best interest of our people. Aho! Mvto!

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions


Please read, act and forward to everyone and anyone, lets get this bill going!

This 52nd legislative session, Oklahoma State Representative AND House Education Committee Chair Ann Coody, from Comanche County has authored HB 2929, the “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”. It reads in part:

The purpose of the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act is to recognize the unique relationship that Oklahoma enjoys with the Indian tribes located within the state and how Native Americans and Indian tribes play a pivotal role in the educational system of the state in light of this special relationship. The further purpose of the act is to establish the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education. The purpose of creating the Council is to promote equitable and culturally relevant learning environments, educational opportunities and instructional material for Native American students enrolled in the public schools of the state. Because of the number of Native American students enrolled in public schools in the state, this objective will positively affect the educational success of all public school students and encourage further government-to-government cooperation between the State of Oklahoma and the sovereign Indian tribes located in Oklahoma .”

and

“A. There is hereby created the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education.

B. The Council shall:

1. Advise the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in educational matters affecting the education of Native American students;

2. Promote equal educational opportunity and improve the quality of education provided to Native American students throughout the state;

3. Advocate for Native American students in the state; and

4. Monitor and evaluate how the public education system of the state impacts Native American students.

C. The Council shall be composed of seventeen (17) members as follows:

1. Five members who shall represent an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

2. Four members who shall represent the tribal education departments of an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

3. One member who shall represent the Oklahoma Council on Indian Education, appointed by the Governor;

4. Two members who shall represent two different statewide organizations representing public school teachers, appointed by the Governor;

5. One member who shall represent Oklahoma tribal colleges, appointed by the Chancellor of Higher Education;

6. The Director of the Native American Cultural and Educational Authority or designee;

7. The Chancellor of Higher Education, or designee;

8. The Director of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education, or designee; and

9. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or designee.

D. Appointments to the Council shall be made by September 1, 2010……..”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

1. CALL AND E-MAIL THE OKLAHOMA LEGISLATIVE MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE ASKING THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

2.  CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR TRIBAL REPRESENTATIVES AND GET THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

3. CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR STATE LEGISLATORS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;Find your legislators: http://www.capitolconnect.com/…

4. CALL AND E-MAIL THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN CAUCUS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;The Native American Caucus Members: http://www.ok.gov/oiac/State-T…

http://ok.gov/oiac/State-Triba…

Full text of the act is here: http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok…

DO THIS FOR THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH, OUR CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED THIS….

MVTO!!!

Oklahoma House of Representatives Common Education Committee:

http://www.okhouse.gov/Committ…

E-mail addresses

anncoody@okhouse.gov

sallykern@okhouse.gov

gusblackwell@okhouse.gov

ed.cannaday@okhouse.gov

tadjones@okhouse.gov

earl.sears@okhouse.gov

danielsullivan@okhouse.gov

sam.buck@okhouse.gov

dougcox@okhouse.gov

joedorman@okhouse.gov

jeanniemcdaniel@okhouse.gov

jabarshumate@okhouse.gov

Oklahoma State Senate Education Committee: http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/

fordj@oksenate.gov

jolley@oksenate.gov

branan@oksenate.gov

brownb@oksenate.gov

cochran@oksenate.gov

easley@oksenate.gov

easonmcintyre@oksenate.gov

gumm@oksenate.gov

halligan@oksenate.gov

lerblance@oksenate.gov

mazzei@oksenate.gov

paddack@oksenate.gov

reynolds@oksenate.gov

sparks@oksenate.gov

stanislawski@oksenate.gov

Sample e-mail:

Dear Honorable Member of the Education Committee:

HB 2929 is a crucial bill for the American Indian youth and children of Oklahoma . This Bill will help address concerns of the American Indian population across the state while correcting wrongs perpetuated by a broken education system.  Please stand up for the unheard population of Oklahoma and support HB 2929 with your vote this legislative session.  Our American Indian youth and children are counting on you. I will gladly discuss my position with you at length should you desire to contact me.  Thank you in advance for your support of HB 2929.  

Thank you,

Name

Address

Contact Information

Thank you, Brenda Golden on behalf of

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions

(Posted with permission from the author)

Posted in Uncategorized

Action: Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act

(Urgent Action Needed – promoted by oke)


Please help to spread the word that we need to contact our State Representatives to make them aware that HB 2929 will be brought to the floor of the House TODAY for a final vote before being sent to the Governor’s office. We need our legislators to know of our interest in this bill and its passing the House. This is our chance to make a mark in Indian education for our children and grandchildren to meet their needs more effectively by engaging the collaborative energies of this state body to guide the process of dialogue, deliberation, and discussion of how to serve our native students of the state of Oklahoma! Together we can make this happen in the best interest of our people. Aho! Mvto!

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions


Please read, act and forward to everyone and anyone, lets get this bill going!

This 52nd legislative session, Oklahoma State Representative AND House Education Committee Chair Ann Coody, from Comanche County has authored HB 2929, the “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”. It reads in part:

The purpose of the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act is to recognize the unique relationship that Oklahoma enjoys with the Indian tribes located within the state and how Native Americans and Indian tribes play a pivotal role in the educational system of the state in light of this special relationship. The further purpose of the act is to establish the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education. The purpose of creating the Council is to promote equitable and culturally relevant learning environments, educational opportunities and instructional material for Native American students enrolled in the public schools of the state. Because of the number of Native American students enrolled in public schools in the state, this objective will positively affect the educational success of all public school students and encourage further government-to-government cooperation between the State of Oklahoma and the sovereign Indian tribes located in Oklahoma .”

and

“A. There is hereby created the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education.

B. The Council shall:

1. Advise the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in educational matters affecting the education of Native American students;

2. Promote equal educational opportunity and improve the quality of education provided to Native American students throughout the state;

3. Advocate for Native American students in the state; and

4. Monitor and evaluate how the public education system of the state impacts Native American students.

C. The Council shall be composed of seventeen (17) members as follows:

1. Five members who shall represent an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

2. Four members who shall represent the tribal education departments of an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

3. One member who shall represent the Oklahoma Council on Indian Education, appointed by the Governor;

4. Two members who shall represent two different statewide organizations representing public school teachers, appointed by the Governor;

5. One member who shall represent Oklahoma tribal colleges, appointed by the Chancellor of Higher Education;

6. The Director of the Native American Cultural and Educational Authority or designee;

7. The Chancellor of Higher Education, or designee;

8. The Director of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education, or designee; and

9. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or designee.

D. Appointments to the Council shall be made by September 1, 2010……..”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

1. CALL AND E-MAIL THE OKLAHOMA LEGISLATIVE MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE ASKING THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

2.  CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR TRIBAL REPRESENTATIVES AND GET THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

3. CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR STATE LEGISLATORS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;Find your legislators: http://www.capitolconnect.com/…

4. CALL AND E-MAIL THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN CAUCUS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;The Native American Caucus Members: http://www.ok.gov/oiac/State-T…

http://ok.gov/oiac/State-Triba…

Full text of the act is here: http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok…

DO THIS FOR THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH, OUR CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED THIS….

MVTO!!!

Oklahoma House of Representatives Common Education Committee:

http://www.okhouse.gov/Committ…

E-mail addresses

anncoody@okhouse.gov

sallykern@okhouse.gov

gusblackwell@okhouse.gov

ed.cannaday@okhouse.gov

tadjones@okhouse.gov

earl.sears@okhouse.gov

danielsullivan@okhouse.gov

sam.buck@okhouse.gov

dougcox@okhouse.gov

joedorman@okhouse.gov

jeanniemcdaniel@okhouse.gov

jabarshumate@okhouse.gov

Oklahoma State Senate Education Committee: http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/

fordj@oksenate.gov

jolley@oksenate.gov

branan@oksenate.gov

brownb@oksenate.gov

cochran@oksenate.gov

easley@oksenate.gov

easonmcintyre@oksenate.gov

gumm@oksenate.gov

halligan@oksenate.gov

lerblance@oksenate.gov

mazzei@oksenate.gov

paddack@oksenate.gov

reynolds@oksenate.gov

sparks@oksenate.gov

stanislawski@oksenate.gov

Sample e-mail:

Dear Honorable Member of the Education Committee:

HB 2929 is a crucial bill for the American Indian youth and children of Oklahoma . This Bill will help address concerns of the American Indian population across the state while correcting wrongs perpetuated by a broken education system.  Please stand up for the unheard population of Oklahoma and support HB 2929 with your vote this legislative session.  Our American Indian youth and children are counting on you. I will gladly discuss my position with you at length should you desire to contact me.  Thank you in advance for your support of HB 2929.  

Thank you,

Name

Address

Contact Information

Thank you, Brenda Golden on behalf of

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions

(Posted with permission from the author)

Posted in Uncategorized

Action: Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act


Please help to spread the word that we need to contact our State Representatives to make them aware that HB 2929 will be brought to the floor of the House TODAY for a final vote before being sent to the Governor’s office. We need our legislators to know of our interest in this bill and its passing the House. This is our chance to make a mark in Indian education for our children and grandchildren to meet their needs more effectively by engaging the collaborative energies of this state body to guide the process of dialogue, deliberation, and discussion of how to serve our native students of the state of Oklahoma! Together we can make this happen in the best interest of our people. Aho! Mvto!

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions


Please read, act and forward to everyone and anyone, lets get this bill going!

This 52nd legislative session, Oklahoma State Representative AND House Education Committee Chair Ann Coody, from Comanche County has authored HB 2929, the “Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act”. It reads in part:

The purpose of the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education Act is to recognize the unique relationship that Oklahoma enjoys with the Indian tribes located within the state and how Native Americans and Indian tribes play a pivotal role in the educational system of the state in light of this special relationship. The further purpose of the act is to establish the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education. The purpose of creating the Council is to promote equitable and culturally relevant learning environments, educational opportunities and instructional material for Native American students enrolled in the public schools of the state. Because of the number of Native American students enrolled in public schools in the state, this objective will positively affect the educational success of all public school students and encourage further government-to-government cooperation between the State of Oklahoma and the sovereign Indian tribes located in Oklahoma .”

and

“A. There is hereby created the Oklahoma Advisory Council on Indian Education.

B. The Council shall:

1. Advise the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in educational matters affecting the education of Native American students;

2. Promote equal educational opportunity and improve the quality of education provided to Native American students throughout the state;

3. Advocate for Native American students in the state; and

4. Monitor and evaluate how the public education system of the state impacts Native American students.

C. The Council shall be composed of seventeen (17) members as follows:

1. Five members who shall represent an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

2. Four members who shall represent the tribal education departments of an Indian tribe in the state, appointed by the Governor from a list of nominations submitted by the different Indian tribes in the state;

3. One member who shall represent the Oklahoma Council on Indian Education, appointed by the Governor;

4. Two members who shall represent two different statewide organizations representing public school teachers, appointed by the Governor;

5. One member who shall represent Oklahoma tribal colleges, appointed by the Chancellor of Higher Education;

6. The Director of the Native American Cultural and Educational Authority or designee;

7. The Chancellor of Higher Education, or designee;

8. The Director of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education, or designee; and

9. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, or designee.

D. Appointments to the Council shall be made by September 1, 2010……..”

WHAT YOU CAN DO:

1. CALL AND E-MAIL THE OKLAHOMA LEGISLATIVE MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE ASKING THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

2.  CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR TRIBAL REPRESENTATIVES AND GET THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;

3. CALL AND E-MAIL YOUR STATE LEGISLATORS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;Find your legislators: http://www.capitolconnect.com/…

4. CALL AND E-MAIL THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN CAUCUS TO TELL THEM TO SUPPORT THIS BILL;The Native American Caucus Members: http://www.ok.gov/oiac/State-T…

http://ok.gov/oiac/State-Triba…

Full text of the act is here: http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok…

DO THIS FOR THE CHILDREN AND YOUTH, OUR CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED THIS….

MVTO!!!

Oklahoma House of Representatives Common Education Committee:

http://www.okhouse.gov/Committ…

E-mail addresses

anncoody@okhouse.gov

sallykern@okhouse.gov

gusblackwell@okhouse.gov

ed.cannaday@okhouse.gov

tadjones@okhouse.gov

earl.sears@okhouse.gov

danielsullivan@okhouse.gov

sam.buck@okhouse.gov

dougcox@okhouse.gov

joedorman@okhouse.gov

jeanniemcdaniel@okhouse.gov

jabarshumate@okhouse.gov

Oklahoma State Senate Education Committee: http://www.lsb.state.ok.us/

fordj@oksenate.gov

jolley@oksenate.gov

branan@oksenate.gov

brownb@oksenate.gov

cochran@oksenate.gov

easley@oksenate.gov

easonmcintyre@oksenate.gov

gumm@oksenate.gov

halligan@oksenate.gov

lerblance@oksenate.gov

mazzei@oksenate.gov

paddack@oksenate.gov

reynolds@oksenate.gov

sparks@oksenate.gov

stanislawski@oksenate.gov

Sample e-mail:

Dear Honorable Member of the Education Committee:

HB 2929 is a crucial bill for the American Indian youth and children of Oklahoma . This Bill will help address concerns of the American Indian population across the state while correcting wrongs perpetuated by a broken education system.  Please stand up for the unheard population of Oklahoma and support HB 2929 with your vote this legislative session.  Our American Indian youth and children are counting on you. I will gladly discuss my position with you at length should you desire to contact me.  Thank you in advance for your support of HB 2929.  

Thank you,

Name

Address

Contact Information

Thank you, Brenda Golden on behalf of

Society to Preserve Indigenous Rights & Indigenous Traditions

(Posted with permission from the author)

Posted in Uncategorized

Northern California Indian Spirituality

( – promoted by navajo)

As with American Indians in other areas, the Northern California Indians traditionally viewed human beings, plants, animals, and objects as living things-“people”-who were basically equals. The relationship between human beings and animals, for example, was not one of exploitation but of reciprocity. Human beings respected the animal people and performed certain rites for them while the animals provided human beings with food and skins.

The non-human people-the trees, the rocks, the animals, the mountains, the springs, and others-are not only alive, but they have certain special powers and these powers can be shared with human beings when humans form a spiritual friendship and alliance with these other people. Traditionally, it was (and often, still is) the job of each individual to seek out and establish relations with the spiritual forces that were to become his or her special ally.

Among the Indian people of Northern California, dreams are the key to the spiritual world. It is in dreams that people meet the supernaturals and the spirits of birds and animals who can give them special gifts of knowledge and power. In some instances young people would go through special training and then seek a vision with the sponsorship of an elder. In other instances, the vision would simply come to people while swimming in a lake, river, or ocean.

The things that happen in dreams are just as important as those things which happen when one is awake. From the perspective of the California Indians, dreaming does not take place entirely in the mind, but is a type of communication, a way of gaining knowledge. Dreams are often more important than the events that happen when one is awake: dreams are the direct contact with the spirit world.

With regard to the ceremonies of the Northern California Indian nations, one of the most important was the World Renewal or Big Time. Among the Indians of Northern California – Karuk, Yurok, Hupa, Tolowa, Wiyot – this ceremony involved a series of complex dances, speeches, and displays of high status items. The purpose of this ceremony was to renew the world and to assure stability between the annual ceremonies. The death and rebirth of the world can be seen in the ceremonial rebuilding of ceremonial structures such as the sweathouse, ceremonial house, and dance areas.  

Among the Yurok, the World Renewal ceremony was traditionally carried out each spring and each fall. The ceremonies were held at specific historic spots along the Klamath River. As a part of the ceremony, the Wogé Spirits (the pre-human inhabitants of the earth) were given tobacco and angelica root which were thrown into the fire as offerings. The World Renewal rites were held to insure bountiful crops, abundant salmon and deer, and to prevent disasters such as earthquakes, falling stars, illness, floods, and the end of the world.

Among the Yurok, the Hupa, and the Karuk the White Deerskin Dance was an occasion for displaying antique obsidian blades and albino deerskins. During this dance albino or oddly colored deerskins were held aloft on wooden poles. Among the Hupa, the carefully prepared and decorated deerskins used in the ten-day ceremony are considered to be tribal rather than personal property.    

The Karok would traditionally hold their Jumping Dance at the place where the salmon had been created. The dance is held to prevent sickness, to bring happiness, and to bring good weather. According to one elder:

“When man and the world become unbalanced, then we must dance the great dances, rhythmically stamping upon the earth, exchanging with it and balancing all that brings health, strength, food, honor, good luck, and happiness for all.”

For the Jumping Dance, the dancers wear elaborate outfits, including headdresses with woodpecker scalps attached to the forehead band and topped with a feathered plume. Among the Yurok the participants would wear a headdress containing about 70 redheaded woodpecker scalps. In addition to the headdress, the dancers also wear dentalia shell necklaces and a deerskin skirt and they carry a Jump Dance basket in the right hand.

The Brush Dance was an important curing ceremony and was given for curing a sick child. During this ceremony, the roof planks were removed from the house during the dance so that people could watch from the outside (houses were dug down into the ground). The Brush Dance is also an occasion for community entertainment and courtship.

An important element in the curing is the waving of sticks of burning sugar pine pitchwood over the baby while singing. This helps the baby grow stronger.  

Yurok House

Sacred American Indian Places in Northern California

( – promoted by navajo)

Religious traditions which are based on animism-the view that all things are alive and have souls-tend to have sacred places that are natural rather than being made by human beings. Instead of building churches, animists tend to use special places in the natural landscape as portals to the spiritual world.

The Indian nations of Northern California had many different areas which they considered to be sacred. Some of these were places in which creation had occurred; some are places where healing powers can be obtained; and some are places where it is easier to make contact with the spirit world. The diary below describes a few of these places.  

Mount Diablo, located east of San Francisco Bay, is a sacred place to many of the tribes of Central California. For the Miwok, for example, this is the place where creation took place and where human beings acquired fire.

Mount Shasta is a key figure in the stories and ceremonies of several Indian cultures, including the Karuk, Yurok, Shasta, Hupa, Yana, Pit River, Wiyot, and Wintu. It is one of the main sacred mountains to the Wintu. The souls of the dead go first to Mount Shasta and then to the Milky Way.

In 1988, the Forest Service issued permits for a ski resort on Mount Shasta. Prior to issuing the permits the Forest Service talked with groups who consider Mount Shasta to be sacred — Wintu, Pit River, Shasta, and Karuk. Florence Jones, who is considered the “top doctor” by the Wintu, tells them:

“The mountain is where I get my information to treat people. If you ruin my spiritual place, how will I take care of my people as a doctor?”

However, the Forest Service archaeologists found no cultural resources on Mount Shasta which would interfere with the development of a ski resort.

Patrick’s Point is celebrated in Yurok stories and songs as the last abode of the immortals. These immortal beings left the other parts of Yurok territory when the Yurok people were created. However, they still continue to linger at Patrick’s Point. Among the important spiritual people who are found here are the Porpoise People (the porpoises are considered to be a people.)

Medicine Lake in the Modoc National Forest in northeastern California was formed 100,000 years ago with a volcanic eruption which left a caldera or basin in which the lake formed. This is an area which is of spiritual importance to the Pit River, Modoc, Klamath, Shasta, Karuk, and Wintu. According to the Pit River Tribal Council:

“The area of the Medicine Lake Highlands is important to the culture, religious practices of the Ajumawai and Atwamsini Bands of the Pit River Nation, and to the Pit River Tribe as a whole”

The Medicine Lake area is still used for vision quests, for gathering healing herbs, and for other ceremonies.

In 1998, the federal government granted leases which allow for the development of geothermal energy sources around the volcanic Medicine Lake Highlands. The following year, the Medicine Lake caldera was found eligible to be added to the National Register of Historic Places as a Traditional Cultural District because of its long use by Northern California tribes.

Cave of Hands is located in Pico Blanco in Monterey County. The Cave of Hands, sacred to the Costanoan, contains more than 250 hands made by tracing and filling in. Archaeologists estimate that these painting were done more than 3,190 years ago.

Mount Offield is considered the most sacred mountain in Karuk territory. The Karuk call this place Ikxaréeyav Túuyship which means “mountain of the immortals.” During the World Renewal Ceremony, the Karuk would burn the brush on the slope of the mountain (a practice which was stopped by the Americans).

Crater Lake in southern Oregon is sacred to the Klamath. The lake was formed 7,700 years ago when a volcano – Mount Mazama – erupted and collapsed. The caldera then filled with water making it the deepest lake in North America (1,943 feet). Oral history tells of the volcanic eruption and the formation of the lake. The eruption reflected the battle between Llao, a mountain spirit, and Skell. After the lake was formed, the Klamath used the area as a vision quest site.

This list is meant to be illustrative, not exhaustive. I realize that I have not provided a great deal of detail about the nature of these sites, but since I am not affiliated with any of the Northern California tribes, it would be inappropriate for me to provide greater detail.

Mount Shasta

American Indian Relocation

( – promoted by navajo)

Following World War II, many American politicians wanted to end the federal relationship with Indian nations. They cited the cost of maintaining treaty obligations at a time when the United States was committed to rebuild the war-torn economies of Germany and Japan. The money which had been going to Indian reservations would be better spent, they felt, in Germany and Japan.

Furthermore, they argued, Indians needed to be assimilated into mainstream American society. After all, they often argued, the Germans, Italians, Irish, Poles, and many others had successfully assimilated when they came to this country and therefore Indians should be able to do the same. To make their arguments sound more reasonable they talked about “freeing” Indians from the reservations. They didn’t point out that once Indians were “freed” from their reservations, then the natural resources on these reservations would be “free” to be developed by non-Indian corporations.  

The philosophical milieu which nourished relocation fever among non-Indians stemmed from two twentieth century world views. The first was that of anti-communism. In the minds of many people Indian reservations, which were communally held lands, were communistic and therefore inherently evil and, more importantly, un-American. Secondly, many western politicians, responding to the expressed desires of corporate interests, saw Indian lands as impediments to economic development. Since Indians could not develop these lands, they reasoned, they should be opened up for development to those who could develop them. Once the Indians were off the reservations, then non-Indians could once again economically benefit from lands which had once belonged to the Indians.

As a part of this program of “assimilation” and “freeing the Indians,” the Bureau of Indian Affairs embarked on a program known as “relocation.” The logic behind the program was rather simplistic: (1) there were jobs in the cities, (2) Indians were on reservations, (3) move Indians to the cities. Thus the “Indian problem” would be solved.

In 1951, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) opened four urban field relocation offices-Los Angeles, Denver, Salt Lake City, and Chicago-and began to pressure Indians to move to the cities. Migration always involves two basic factors: (1) the push factors which make people want to leave their homes, and (2) the pull factors which are the dreams of better things somewhere else.

To enhance the push factors, they told the Indians that all services on the reservation-schools, medical facilities, etc.-were going to be terminated and there would be nothing on the reservations to help them. The BIA then worked with the Indians to sell their land to non-Indians.

Unemployment is a major push factor for migration. To increase unemployment on the reservation, the BIA contracted most services to non-Indian companies and thus drove up unemployment.

To enhance the pull factors, the BIA painted glowing pictures of city life and all of the amenities that came with it: high-paying jobs, nice homes, modern household appliances, good schools, etc.

Once convinced (coerced), Indians were given one-way bus tickets to the city. When they arrived in the city, Indians found no help, no training, no housing, and no good-paying jobs. The BIA hadn’t bothered to find out if there were actually jobs in the cities and Indians were frequently sent to areas of high unemployment.

The BIA also ignored the skills that Indians would need to obtain urban jobs. There was no job training, no attempt to match Indians to specific jobs before they left the reservation. While the BIA sometimes touted this as a “jobs” program, it is clear they had no clear understanding of the employment market. While the BIA gave lip service to the idea that relocation was about jobs, in reality, the practice of relocation had little to do with jobs. It was based on the philosophy that reservations were bad and that Indians must be removed from them.

While Indians were often under the impression that there would be some services in the city to help them with finding work and housing, the BIA  did not actually provide any services for the relocated Indians. From the BIA perspective, once the Indians were off the reservation they were no longer a BIA concern. It was simply assumed that the free market would take care of the new arrivals.

Beyond bus or train fare to the city, the relocation program provided limited subsistence. Initially, this subsistence program was for two weeks and was later extended to three weeks. While the BIA wanted to make sure that the relocated Indians had money for food and bus fare, they did not want them to have money for cigarettes, phone calls, newspapers, or recreation.

The BIA envisioned relocation as a way of emptying the reservations and BIA officials were often dismayed as Indian people began to return home. The BIA had assumed that Indians, once in the city, would remain there. Many Indians, on the other hand, coming from cultures in which nomadism is valued, simply saw the cities as temporary residences. To counter this trend, the BIA tried to send Indians to cities as far from their reservations as possible.

In 1958 the General Accountability Office evaluated the relocation program and concludes that: (1) the areas selected for relocation did not offer adequate opportunities for Indians, (2) Indians were not adequately prepared for relocation, and (3) no standards for selecting relocatees had been established by the BIA.

During the relocation era from 1952 to 1972, more than 100,000 Indians were relocated to the cities. Many of the relocated Indians returned to their reservations or moved back and forth between reservations and urban communities. Many Indians found urban life intolerable and returned permanently to their home reservation.

Relocation also failed to take into account the cultural importance of the reservation. In the minds of the non-Indian planners, Indian religion and Indian spirituality did not exist. Therefore, they failed to understand the spiritual and religious ties which tribal members have with their reservations. They failed to understand that Native American spirituality is not based on spaces and monuments created by human beings, but instead is focused on natural elements found outside of the cities.

The BIA wanted to use relocation as a means of destroying tribal identity. In a number of cities, relocation created new Indian ghettos filled with Indians from many dissimilar tribes. With this melting pot from many different tribes, many began to identify ethnically as “Indian” rather than as their tribal affiliation. The urbanization of Indians began to create a sense of pan-Indian identity leading to the creation of urban Indian centers and organizations such as the American Indian Movement (AIM).

Voting and Native Languages

( – promoted by navajo)

The federal election voter guide is now available in the four most commonly spoken Native American/Alaska Native languages:  Cherokee, Dakota, Navajo and Yup’ik. These languages are spoken by about 220,500 Americans.

Native American Languages:

Five centuries ago, there were more than 500 distinct Native American languages spoken in North America. With European contact, Native languages began to disappear. The death of these languages was brought about by two basic factors: (1) the death of the people who spoke them, caused by European diseases and deliberate genocide, and (2) the active suppression of Native languages by the American government.

By the 1960s, there were still 175 Indian languages being spoken in the United States and Canada. Of these languages, 136 had fewer than 2,000 speakers and 34 had fewer than 10 speakers. By 2007, it was estimated that only 154 Indian languages were still being spoken and that half of these were spoken only by elders.

At the present time, it estimated that there are 46 Indian languages which are still being spoken by significant numbers of children. Languages which are being learned by children have some chance of survival.  A flourishing language is one in which the contact or colonial language is used almost entirely as a second language. In North America only Navajo, Mississippi Choctaw, and some Cree communities fit this definition.  

Retention of the native language is an important issue for many tribes. Many Native American communities have language programs to try to teach their languages to children.  As a consequence there are on many reservations programs which are intended to maintain the language. In communities in which the children no longer speak the native language, the goal is language revival in which the Indian language is taught as a second language. By 1986 there were 98 language projects involving 55 different Indian languages. There was an enrollment of more than 14,000 students in these programs. By 2006, there were 62 native languages being taught in 101 programs in 24 states and provinces.

In 1990, Congress passed the Native American Languages Act which declared a national policy of respect for Native American languages and encouragement of their continued vitality. In 1997, the Indigenous Language Institute began to put an emphasis on the revitalization of Indian languages, not just their preservation. With new technologies, such as computers, and working with Native communities, languages can be revitalized as a part of daily life.

Navajo:

Navajo (Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language which is spoken by more than 140,000 native speakers. Over half of the Navajo speak the language at home and the language is commonly used for everyday communication. Many parents still pass on the Navajo language to their children as a first language.

During World War II, Navajo was used as a code in the Pacific by bilingual code talkers to send military messages over the radio.

While many Navajo still speak their language, a recent survey shows that only 5% of the school-aged children on the reservation speak the language fluently. In an attempt to counter this language loss, many elementary school classes on the reservation are now offering immersion classes in Navajo. One study found that in Window Rock, Arizona, Indian children who began school in Dine (Navajo) and learned English as a second language performed almost two grade levels above their peers who started school in English.

Census data from the Navajo reservation indicate that between 1980 and 1990 the proportion of Navajos aged 5-17 who spoke only English rose from 12% to 28%, and by 2000, the figure reached 43%.

The language most closely related to Navajo is Apache.

Dakota:

There are about 20,355 speakers of Dakota in the United States and Canada. On the Spirit Lake Reservation in North Dakota, there are only 120 fluent speakers out of a tribal population of 4,435. All of the Spirit Lake fluent speakers are elderly. In order to retain the language, people meet in the school gym every other Tuesday for soup and conversation in Dakota.

Cherokee:

Cherokee is an Iroquoian language which is spoken in Oklahoma and in North Carolina. It is estimated that there are between 12,000 and 22,000 fluent speakers. Cherokee is unique among the languages of Native American cultures in North America as it has its own writing system.

Yup’ik:

Yup’ik is an Eskimo-Aleut language which is spoken by about 10,000 Natives in Alaska. Since the mid-1970s, educational programs have been implemented to revive and sustain the language. The University of Alaska Fairbanks offers a bachelors degree in Yup’ik language and culture and in Yup’ik Eskimo, as well as Associates Degrees in Native Language Education, with a concentration in Yup’ik, and in Yup’ik Language Proficiency.

An American Indian Teaches the Japanese

In 1853 Commodore Matthew C. Perry brought the American Navy to Japan and forced Japan to end its policy of isolation from the rest of the world. In the negotiations, the Japanese government had interpreters who spoke English. Since Japan had isolated itself from the rest of the world and had barred foreigners from their island nation, how did Japanese interpreters come to speak English? The answer to this question lies in the hidden history of American Indians.  

Ranald McDonald was born near present-day Astoria, Oregon in 1824. His mother was the daughter of the prominent Chinook leader Comcomly and his father, of Scots heritage, was an official in the Hudson’s Bay Company. As a Métis child in a fur trading household, he grew up hearing a mixture of languages-French, English, Gaelic, Chinook, Iroquois, and other Indian languages. Thus he was able to quickly adapt to different cultures.

As a child growing up in the Pacific Northwest, he heard many stories about Japan and about the Japanese sailors who had been shipwrecked and then rescued by the Makah, a Northwest Coast tribe whose homeland is on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula. These stories nourished within him the dream of visiting this island nation.

He started his formal education by attending a Hudson’s Bay Company school at Fort Vancouver, Washington. At the age of ten he was then sent to the Hudson’s Bay Company school at the Red River Settlement in Manitoba. After graduating from school, he became a bank clerk apprentice, but soon quit and joined the crew of a whaling ship.

In 1848, Ranald McDonald made a deal with the captain of a U.S. whaling ship. The ship carried him across the Pacific and put him secretly ashore on Rishiri Island in northern Japan. When he landed he was met not by Japanese but by Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan. The Ainu, whose men have beards and abundant body hair and whose women tattooed their upper lips, do not Japanese.

The Japanese, however, soon captured him and took him to Nagasaki. Here he spent six months as a prisoner. During this time he taught English to the Japanese interpreters who would later carry out the negotiations with Commodore Perry.

He was deported from Japan in 1849, but instead of returning to the United States or Canada, he continued traveling around the world. By 1891 he had returned to Astoria, Oregon where he was respected as the only lineal descendent of chief Comcomly. He died in 1894 on the Colville Reservation in Washington. As he died in his niece’s arms, his last words were “Sayonara, my dear, sayonara…”

Today, the Japanese remember Ranald McDonald as the “first teacher of English.” There is a monument to him in Nagasaki, Japan. In addition, there is another monument to him in Astoria, Oregon with the inscription written in Japanese.

In the Spirit of Healing – Balance, Values and Idenity

( – promoted by navajo)

Mitakuyepi

When we talk about healing, as Native people or think about it. It can be over whelming at times. Because, we think as a whole Nation not as an individual. The healing process for a Nation is great work. We began to say where do we start? How do we Start? And Who do we start with? These are all to often common questions by people. If we go back into the traditional times of our ancestors, and think like they did with out all the obsticals. It’s a question that is answered. We start with the Children (Wakanyejan) and teaching them the values and way of life of the Lakota.

They are the key to survival of cultural ways, identity and Our Nations. That’s why the American Government targeted them and put them in boarding schools and took their identities from them. And today’s it’s the children who suffer the most because of historical trauma. When i go out into the communities i see so much richness of culture amongst the youth and children. Even if they don’t see it. Our spirit as Native peoples is in the children and youth. It is them who will carry on for us. As i was told when i was a little girl. “One day you will be a mother and you have to teach these Lakota ways to your children and grandchildren” my grandmother said.

[more below the fold]

Growing up i would sit and listen to the elders and women speak of culture and values. The value systems of the Lakota is a way life i was told. That if i lived by the values and sacred ways my life would be good. The sacred ceremonies were a way to release and heal ourselves from life’s hardships and express our thanks for everything we were given as Humble Human beings of this Earth. Everything i was taught as a child became useful to me as an Adult and in my healing journey on the Red Road. But the most important is to be a mother. At the time of these teachings i didn’t know that it would construct my life into Balance and healing of my spirit from Historical trauma and Genocide.

Growing up in this modern way of the reservations was very tough and hard at times. Why, because of all the influences that we have to face on a daily basis. Coming from broken homes, single parents homes, or no parents at all, poverty, and many other hardships. Coming from abuse of all sorts. Abuse that our people were conditioned to commit on each other. The word that is known all to well in our Native communities (Oppression). Alcohol and drugs was something that we were use to seeing and hearing about on the reservation. It lingered at every corner of darkness as a youth and still does today.

Our youth have so much obsticals to over come to become healthy well-balanced people. Tradition is something that saved me from this negative way of life. It was the teaching that i was taught about how to heal my self to cope with this life we have to live. I have a 16 year old youth that i work with, he’s my nephew. He was involved with gangs, alcohol and drugs. I asked him the other day how he would feel when he woke up. When he was living like that and what could i do as his auntie to help him. This shocked me into tears, He said “Tuwin-Aunite just knowing you care and love me. That you don’t hate me, and you never judged me or put me down.  My dad is gone and my mom doesn’t care she drinking herself to death. If i didn’t have you i wouldn’t have nothing. You helped me learn the Lakota way and showed me how to tend that sacred fire for the sweats. And you understand me, and take care of me when everyone turned there back’s on me. Because i was in a gang, was drinking and doing bad things.  You showed me how to be a real man, and for that i thank you, you help me by just loving me auntie” he said.

  There’s one of our 7 sacred laws that i do hold close to me is the Hunka ( Making of relatives). It was told that there would never be any orphans in our Nation. I seriously believe this with all my heart. No matter how tarnished the jewel is it can always be shined. That is how i feel about these youth and children. All they need is love and to know someone cares and honors them for just being alive. What i learned about the Lakota way of life i will always share with them after all it belongs to them too to all of us. And we are all worthy of it and deserve it.

It is them who will live after we are all gone, it is them who will carry on all the sacred ceremonies and values. We have to teach them. We may not all agree of what is the right way. But i say we have to give them their identities back. Show them how to light that sacred fire and heal their spirits. Support and love them in their healing journey. So one day they can teach others who were walking that wrong path. And show them the gift of the Lakota Way of life and that’s it’s beautiful.

He ce tu ye

Wopila Tanka

Autumn Two Bulls

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