Enforce ICWA in South Dakota; Reunite Lakota Children with their Native Culture

( – promoted by navajo)

Petition: http://salsa3.salsalabs.com/o/…

NPR broadcast: http://www.npr.org/2011/10/25/…

An estimated 700 children a year are being illegally seized by the government in violation of the federal law and family rights and placed in the care of white families outside of the Native-American community, despite the fact that many of these children have family members within the tribe who are willing to care for them. Through out American history, Native American families have been separated and torn apart by the American government.  In 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was agreed upon in order to put an end to the cultural genocide and the governmental kidnapping of children.  35 years later, however, ICWA is still being ignored by government officials, and Native American families are still being torn apart. Children are being deprived of their cultures; they are being relocated and given completely new identities in non-Native American families.

In South Dakota, the Child Protective Services have been blatantly violating ICWA and have been removing Native American children without properly notifying parents or family members who may be able to take the children.  ICWA specifically states that if Native American children must be removed from their parent’s care, they must be placed with a Native-American household so as to preserve their culture.  Here are just a few important facts about the issue in South Dakota:

- Native Americans make up 15% of South Dakota population, but 50% of foster children.

9 out of 10 Native American children are placed in Non-Native American foster care

– The state claims to be doing its best to uphold ICWA, but there are many Native-American foster families that have been given no children what-so-ever.

– Less than 12% of the kids in the South Dakota foster system have been actually physically abused.

– the vast majority of the Lakota people are seized for “neglect”.  Many believe that the state’s definition of neglect is culturally biased against the Lakota.

– South Dakota is removing 3 times more children than any other state

The 9 Sioux Tribes held a summit in May; Washington Officials, Congress staff members, and attorneys from the civil rights division were present, but no one from the state of South Dakota appeared to make a statement.  
There are several movements going on currently to resolve to problem in South Dakota and ensure that the state follows the federal law.  

Petition: http://salsa3.salsalabs.com/o/…

This NPR broadcast does an excellent job of laying out the issue, as well as revealing heart-breaking interviews with Lakota families who are experiencing the injustices.  


The non-profit organization Lakota People’s Law Project is also currently working to address these issues and bring a case against the state of South Dakota.

Donations: https://salsa3.salsalabs.com/o…

Pe Sla in Black Hills to be “Sea of Houses” (UPDATE)

(This is a repost from years ago, and now the nightmare is coming true. When the thieves are in their “Heaven” with their streets made of gold, some of that gold will have been ripped from the sacred Black Hills. I won’t be there)


RAPID CITY, SOUTH DAKOTA — Yet another federally funded “improvement” project threatens to further undermine the sanctity and integrity of a culturally relevant Native American landmark in the Black Hills, or Paha Sapa.

The Pennington County-initiated undertaking, known as the South Rochford Road Project, seeks to pave an approximately 12-mile graveled stretch of road between the unincorporated town of Rochford and Deerfield Lake, a recreational destination. This particular section of South Rochford Road, which remains as a historical throwback of Rochford’s gold mining boomtown days of the late 19th century, gouges a swath directly through the center of what the Lakota call “Pe Sla,” or the venerated “Old Baldy” of the Black Hills.

– snip –

Due to the nation’s ensuing recession, however, the project was essentially put on the back burner until 2010, when the economy began its slow recovery. At that time, the Federal Highway Administration determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) was necessary before the proposal could continue.

Consolidated Indigenous Shadow Report. p. 34.

…the continuation and preservation of traditional Native American Religion is ensured only through the performance of ceremonies and rites by tribal members. These ceremonies and rites are often performed on specific sites…These sites may also be based on special geographic features…For most Native American religions, there may be no alternative places of worship since these ceremonies must be performed at certain places and times to be effective.

Such is the case at Pe Sla, “one of the five primary sacred sites in the Black Hills to the Lakota nation.”


The Pe Sla is one of the five primary sacred sites in the Black Hills to the Lakota nation because of its position on their annual pilgrimage/journey of prayers and ceremonies.  It is also the only one held mostly in private hands as others are within state or federal property.  This prairie has only known cattle grazing by a handful of ranchers since the Homestead Act.  Now subdivisions are encroaching upon this one pristine open space left in the Black Hills.

I can not speak for any tribe and here is my opinion. I think the ACLU should be seriously considered in terms of asking them to sue the appropriate parties over suffocating the religious freedom of the Lakota Nation to start with. I’m “seeking a way to protect this place,” so I didn’t mention cultural genocide.

(emphasis and underline mine)


When the Forest Service was asked about a cabin being renovated as a memorial to the ranching history on the Pe Sla, the questioners reminded them that there was a much longer history of this site among the Lakota.  The Forest Service representative told us that the Lakota elders with whom they consult told them no one wanted that information known.  A few months later when an official from the county government was standing on Rochford Road that runs through the middle of the Pe Sla or Reynolds Prairie, he exclaimed with great satisfaction that “soon this road will be a black ribbon (paved with asphalt) and this prairie will be a sea of houses”.
 Unfortunately, it is only a matter of time that further abuse and possible desecration will take place so that we must tell the story of this sacred site.  Action must be taken to preserve this prairie for future generations.  

• Please pray for its preservation and for the awareness of its spiritual significance to all people.  

• Please tell the story to all whom you know.  

Please show your support by seeking ways to protect this place.  Some of those possibilities are outlined below.

Furthermore, I think Joe Garcia, President of the NCAI, should be contacted by the ACLU in order to proceed in the manner which would not damage tribal sovereignty in any fashion what-so-ever.


National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)

1301 Connecticut Ave NW, Suite 200, Washington D.C. 20036

Phone: (202) 466-7767, Fax: (202) 466-7797

Email: ncai@ncai.org

The ACLU could do a fund and membership drive revolving around this, which would hopefully increase their membership and help raise finances for the case. Everything considered, what are the other alternatives?


The Pennington County Highway Department held a meeting regarding the reconstruction of South Rochford Road at Hill City, SD, on Monday, March 3, 2008, at 6:30 pm. This project runs from Deerfield Lake to the village of Rochford passing through the middle of Reynolds Prairie, or the Pe Sla, one of the most important and sacred Lakota annual pilgrimage sites. Currently it is a gravel road but the plans are to asphalt eleven (11) miles of road with $7.5 million dollars. If the road is blacktopped, housing development and increased traffic will occur. The Hill City Chamber of Commerce is pushing this project.

If they were considering condemning hundreds of churches for the sake of “development” or uranium for that matter, we wouldn’t even be having this discussion.  

Centuries of Genocide: Modoc Indians, Part IV

In case you missed anything…

Part I describes the first generation of Modoc people to contact European-Americans, and the slow war in the Klamath Basin that destroyed the Second Generation. The Ben Wright Massacre is analyzed.

Part II encapsulates the Third Generation’s great crisis and the process leading to the Treaty of 1864, the significance of the Oregon reservation system, and Keintpoos’ years off the reservation before the US Army intervened, concluding with the escalation of tensions into full-blown war. We celebrate Thanksgiving at the end of November: at that time in 1872, Modoc people were fighting US Army from natural trenches in fiercely cold weather.

Part III covers the Modoc War of 1872-1873 as experienced by over 20 Modoc people, President Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, famous settler Lindsay Applegate, and others. It depicts the assassination of General Canby and the fall of the third generation since contact.

After the war’s conclusion, Keintpoos’ severed skull ended up in the Smithsonian. Brancho and Slolux spent life in prison at Alcatraz Island. Winema died in the Spanish Flu epidemic in 1920. And the Modoc people were halved, and one half was shipped to Oklahoma.


The Modoc who went to Lava Beds were collectively judged as prisoners of war, whether they were involved in hostilities during the War or not. A people of lakes, the Cascade Mountains and the high desert, these Modoc were punished by being transferred to eastern Oklahoma.

Article 7 of a 1994 draft of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples uses the phrase “cultural genocide” but does not define what it means.[4] The complete article reads as follows:

Indigenous peoples have the collective and individual right not to be subjected to ethnocide and cultural genocide, including prevention of and redress for:

(a) Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities;

(b) Any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources;

(c) Any form of population transfer which has the aim or effect of violating or undermining any of their rights;

(d) Any form of assimilation or integration by other cultures or ways of life imposed on them by legislative, administrative or other measures;

(e) Any form of propaganda directed against them.

The Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma explains how they ended up at Quapaw, and what happened to them there:

The terrible 2,000-mile winter ride in railroad cars intended for hauling cattle finally ended on November 16, 1873 when 153 Modoc men, women, and children arrived in Baxter Springs, Kansas cold and hungry.

In Baxter Springs, Captain Wilkinson conferred with Hiram W. Jones, Indian Agent at the Quapaw Agency as to where to place the Modoc. It was decided to locate them on Eastern Shawnee land where they would be under the direct supervision of Agent Jones. But Jones’ Quapaw Agency was little prepared to care for 153 persons with little but loose blankets on their backs. With Scarfaced Charley in command and only one day’s help from three non-Indians, the Modoc built their own temporary wood barracks two hundred yards from the agency headquarters. Some were housed in tents. These accommodations were to be their home until June of 1874 when 4,000 acres were purchased for them from the Eastern Shawnee

…Captain Wilkinson remained with his charges until the second week in December. When he left the agency, he reported to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, “on the cars, in the old hotel used for them at Baxter, I found them uniformly obedient, ready to work, cheerful in compliance with police regulations, and with each day providing over and over that they only required just treatment, executed with firmness and kindness to make them a singularly reliable people.”

Despite their industriousness, poverty and material loss would continue to plague the people:

Agent Jones also found he had no difficulty enforcing the strictest discipline, although one small area of friction had developed. This was the habit of some of the Modoc in gambling, resulting in some instances in losing what few possessions they had. When Scarfaced Charley, who had replaced Captain Jack [Keintpoos] as chief, refused to interfere, Jones appointed Bogus Charley as chief. He remained chief until 1880 when formal Modoc tribal government in Oklahoma came to an end for almost 100 years.

More on the dissolution of the legal tribe in a bit. For now, the hard times after arrival:

The first years following removal to Indian Territory were difficult ones for the Modoc. They suffered much sickness and many hardships due to the corrupt and cruel administration of Agent Jones. During the first winter at the Quapaw Agency, there were no government funds available for food, clothing, or medical supplies. It would be almost a year after removal that funds in the amount of $15,000 were received for their needs.

In Oklahoma, the POW population declined precipitously:

The death rate was especially high among the children and the aged. By 1879, after six years at the Quapaw Agency, 54 deaths had reduced the Modoc population to 99. By the time of the Modoc allotment in 1891, there were only 68 left to receive allotments, and many of them had been born after removal. Had it not been for the gifts of money and clothing from charitable organizations in the east, General William Tecumseh Sherman’s wish not to leave a Modoc man, woman, or child alive so the name Modoc would cease, would have become a reality.

If you do a search of ‘Oregon’ in this Quapaw Agency Census from 1900, you will find some of the surviving Modoc. Modoc people are the only tribe of which I’m aware that were ever shipped to Oklahoma from far west.  Their race is indicated as “In” for Indian. Jennie Clinton, or Stimitchuas, is one of the individuals listed. It is believed that she died at age 89 in 1950, but it’s possible she was born earlier than 1861. (She was of the fourth generation after contact, having some pre-reservation and war memories but ultimately spending her adulthood in the reservation system.)

It Was the Assimilation Era

With first Americans no longer free to roam the country, European-Americans thought that the plight of Indians would be alleviated, and with that alleviation, the Indian problem for European-Americans would be solved, by educating and acculturating Indians to Western life.  Quakers had already established a Quapaw boarding school in 1871, 2 years before Modoc arrival. The school was miles to the northwest of the agency.  Isolated from their families, children would forcibly have their hair cut by missionaries, wear European-American schoolchildren garb, and become literate and converted Christians by the missionaries forbidding their language, Klamath-Modoc.

Modoc people at both the Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma and Oregon reservations displayed a strong interest in education and literacy.  In 1879, Modoc people built a church and school on the Modoc Reservation at Quapaw. Later, Modoc children attended the Carlisle School, the notorious string of Indian boarding schools, in Kansas. The families that sent children there included the Hoods, Hoover, Balls and McCartys. Schonchin John’s stepson Adam McCarty died at Carlisle, and Modoc stopped sending their children to Carlisle.

After the war, the third generation since contact passed into elderhood–if they weren’t already butchered or executed. Modoc War leader Steamboat Frank became the first Indian to become an ordained Quaker.  He died in Portland, Maine in the 1890s. The Fourth Generation became the establishment.  The Fifth Generation grew up speaking English.

Dawes, Curtis and Statehood

In 1887, the Dawes Act changed American Indian life forever. Among the most significant changes, reservation land was broken up into patrilineal, owned parcels. This change furthered the loss of Indian land that began with the early treaties and reservations.  

The plains itself had been established as a vast reservation for tribes from the midwest, south and east. But once tapping aquifers like Oglalla and cattle ranching became feasible (Chicago boomed as an inland rail-port) Indians were further reduced to the Indian Territory–Oklahoma.  But now even Indian Territory was wanted, and especially its natural resources.  Statehood for Oklahoma would mean breaking the power of Indian tribes.

Dawes opened a can of worms that, for the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, would spiral into a loss of sovereignty and environmental degradation.  An amendment to Dawes, the Curtis Act of 1898, ended the authority of tribal courts and the tribal governments themselves in Oklahoma. (Charles Curtis himself was a Republican congressman of Osage descent, who wanted education, assimilation and opportunity for Indians through his bill, which was later botched by various committees.)  Although Oklahoma’s natural resource history is most associated with its oil-boom perhaps, in the Quapaw area, rich deposits of zinc and lead allowed for a mining boom. Multiple Indian tribes leased out their land. Today, Quapaw area residents contend with a superfund site from those mines and the environmental costs that entails.

In 1909, the US government permitted Oklahoma Modoc to return to Oregon. Twenty-nine did so. Jennie Clinton was among them; she would then divorce and live until 1950 in a cabin on Oregon’s Williamson River.  The remaining forebears of the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma were (and still are) the smallest group of American Indian people in the region.

This is how the Third and Fourth Generations lived and died in Oklahoma.

Subsequent generations of Modoc history will be described in upcoming diaries.

Centuries of Genocide: Modoc Indians, Part II

( – promoted by navajo)


photo credit: Aaron Huey


Prior to contact, the Modoc people inhabited an area approximately 5,000 square miles in southern Oregon and the northeastern corner of California, where today Modoc County corresponds somewhat to traditional geography. To the southwest (moowat and Tgalam) Mt. Shasta rises up, covered in shining blue ice. Modoc people would make pilgrimages to the sacred mountain every year, but would not dwell there.  Sacred journeys were also made to Medicine Lake: a healing volcanic feature now used as a recreation park.  To the east (lobiitdal’) lies Goose Lake, and to the north (yaamat) in Klamath land is Mt. Mazama.  Today, Mazama is known as Crater Lake.

Thousands of years ago, oral traditional states, the ancestors of the Modoc and the much more numerous Klamath people hid in caves from the catastrophic eruption of Mazama.  Beyond the terrifying images of raining ash and fire imaginable, this event affected world climate.

In between these boundaries are Klamath Lake, Tule Lake, Lost, Williamson and Sprague Rivers, hundreds of marshes, many seasonally dry, pine forests, the lush Cascade mountains, high desert, and alkali flats most desolate in appearance.  The geography dictated the lifestyle: considered harsh by other Indian peoples, Modocs were nonetheless blessed with the bounty of wocas, a pond-lily seed, during the annual harvest season, salmon and suckerfish, as well as plentiful duck, pelican, goose and other waterfowl, many deer, moose, bear, elk, and delicious berries and roots like camas. Traditionally, they are a weaving and hunting people. Tule reed is the principle fabric source.

This stark land was one of the last places in the 48 where European settlers, desirous for land, timber and gold, would venture. It would become the setting for the most expensive Indian war in US history.


In Part 1, I gave an overview of Modoc life as it existed for 8,000 years from the eruption of Mt. Mazama to contact, and from there, disease, increasing tension between Modocs and European-Americans, and bloodshed, up until the Ben Wright Massacre and its crippling effect on Modoc people.

At least 41 Modoc men, women, and children died in the Ben Wright Massacre, an assault at night on a Modoc village. Schonchin John, brother of Old Schonchin, was one of the only survivors.



  • Old Schonchin

  • John Schonchin, his brother

  • Keintpoos, or Captain Jack

  • Toby Riddle, interpreter

  • Cho’ocks, or Curley-Headed Doctor

  • Link River Doctor

  • Hooker Jim

  • Scarfaced Charley

  • Mary or Queen Mary, Keintpoos’ sister

  • Lizzie, Keintpoos’ wife
  • Old Wife (of Keintpoos)

  • Rose, Keintpoos’ infant daughter.

  • Jeff Riddle, Toby’s son.


  • Ulysses S. Grant, US president

  • Alfred B. Meacham, Oregon Superintendent for Indian Affairs

  • J.W. Perit Huntington, Oregon Superintendent for Indian Affairs
  • Elijah Steele, Indian Agent for Northern California
  • Lindsay Applegate, founder of the Applegate trail, Oregon Indian Subagent

  • O.C. Knapp, Subagent

  • Captain James Jackson, Army

  • Frank Riddle, settler, husband to Toby

  • The Second Generation’s Passing, The Rise of the Third

    After the Ben Wright Massacre, wars broke out between the US and multiple tribes across the northwest and great basin, and even more treaties were made. These treaties dealt with issues that are still politically tense today: fishing, farming, and timber, and with these, water rights. US government was to protect American Indian rights in exchange for their reservation captivity, peace and the forfeiture of much more land.

    For Modocs, the second generation since contact began to disappear, either plagued by tuberculosis, smallpox, influenza or other disease, or massacred by settlers.  Old Schonchin who had led the raid on settlers at Bloody Point and his brother John passed into elderhood.  The Modoc children alive during the Ben Wright Massacre of 1852 matured into adulthood. These included Keintpoos who would become known as Captain Jack, his wife Lizzie, and his sister Queen Mary.

    The Valentine’s Day Treaty

    Keintpoos met with Elijah Steele. Steele was Northern California’s Indian agent and a Republican Party boss, former prospector, judge and a founding settler of Siskiyou County, California.  Keintpoos and his band felt cheated by the process up north.

    In The Modocs and Their War, Keith A. Murray describes their horribly modest goals:

    [T]hey asked Judge Steele to draft a treaty for them, even thought they were no longer under his agency.  Steele knew that his jurisdiction no longer extended to the Modocs [relocated to Oregon] and Klamaths and, furthermore, that he had no authority to negotiate treaties with any Indians. Nevertheless, he felt that an informal treaty was better than none, especially when the Indians themselves asked for one. He thought he could turn over to the new superintendent a fair accompli.  By the terms of the treaty, the Modocs and others who signed it promised to stop stealing stock and to refrain from further child stealing. They agreed to quit selling their women to the miners, though marriage by purchase to other Indians was permitted.  They also agreed to cease quarreling among themselves.  They conceded the right of soldiers to punish them if they broke the agreement.  In return, they were given permission to trade, to acts as guides, and to operate ferries for a fee.  They also agreed to get permission from the soldiers at Fort Klamath whenever they wished to leave a reservation that would be set up for them.  Steele promised, bound only by his own word, to try to get a reservation for Jack’s band just west of Tule Lake along the Lost River.

    This reservation would have cost $20,000 and appeased Keintpoos, a much smaller sum than the over $1,000,000 Modoc War that would follow.

    The Klamath Tribes Treaty of 1864

    There was another treaty, one that became binding. This October treaty, signed in Oregon, required the Modoc and Yahooskin tribes (a band of the Snake Indians) to enter a reservation on Klamath land.  You can see a text of the treaty here, along with the names of the signers.  Modoc participants included Old Schonchin and Keintpoos, recognized by treaty as chiefs of the Modoc people, with Schonchin recognized as the superior.  Although the Modoc spoke a dialect of Klamath, intermarried, and traded with Klamath people, their relationship was not friendly. The Klamath saw the Modoc people as a country people, coarse in their speech and hardscrabble in their existence.

    ARTICLE 9. The several tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, acknowledge their dependence upon the Government of the United States, and agree to be friendly with all citizens thereof, and to commit no depredations upon the person or property of said citizens, and to refrain from carrying on any war upon other Indian tribes; and they further agree that they will not communicate with or assist any persons or nation hostile to the United States, and, further, that they will submit to and obey all laws and regulations which the United States may prescribe for their government and conduct.

    ARTICLE 10. It is hereby provided that if any member of these tribes shall drink any spirituous liquor, or bring any such liquor upon the reservation, his or her proportion of the benefits of this treaty may be withheld for such time as the President of the United States may direct — from the 1864 treaty.

    In 1865, Keitpoos led his band (there had been 4 villages on the Lost River before the Ben Wright Massacre) back to his ancestral home on the Lost River after the government did not recognize him as chief. He had grown disgusted with the US favoritism towards Old Schonchin. With dozens of men, women and children with him, Keintpoos spent 4 years coming and going through the Klamath basin. Because the 1864 treaty was not ratified by the US senate and therefore not in effect, Applegate could not coerce Keintpoos to leave his homeland.

    In 1869, Keintpoos met with Oregon’s superintendent for Indian Affairs, Alfred B. Meacham. Keintpoos, who was by now known as Captain Jack, (allegedly a man in Yreka found Keintpoos similar in appearance to an old mariner) fled with all warriors at the sudden and unexpected appearance of US soldiers. Meacham ordered the women and children (who had been left behind) to be boarded on wagons bound for the reservation.  Meacham entreated Queen Mary, the sister of Captain Jack, to go persuade the man and his band into heading back north. Captain Jack relented. The Modoc were all together again on the reservation.

    Reservation Woes

    What is cultural genocide?

    Article 7 of a 1994 draft of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples uses the phrase “cultural genocide” but does not define what it means.[4] The complete article reads as follows:

    Indigenous peoples have the collective and individual right not to be subjected to ethnocide and cultural genocide, including prevention of and redress for:

    (a) Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities;

    (b) Any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources;

    (c) Any form of population transfer which has the aim or effect of violating or undermining any of their rights;

    (d) Any form of assimilation or integration by other cultures or ways of life imposed on them by legislative, administrative or other measures;

    (e) Any form of propaganda directed against them.

    To what degree do these apply to the Third Generation’s pre-war story?

    The misfortunate of the Modoc was to be outnumbered by the Klamath, who could then control the distribution of promised goods delivered by the US. Because the reservation was so small, the Indian peoples had no choice but to depend on the deliveries of food, clothing and other supplies. Nor were the deliveries generous in size. Hunger and poverty began with the third generation.

    Because she was married to the settler Frank Riddle, Toby Riddle was free to come and go as she pleased, with her young son Jeff.  Since her English was among the best spoken by Modoc she found employment as an interpreter.

    Keintpoos, with his wife Lizzie, daughter Rose, his “Old Wife,” Cho’ocks, Hooker Jim, Scarfaced Charley and other Modoc all sojourned south from the reservation to the Lost River over the next several years. On the Klamath tribes reservation deep misery overtook the people. Those who stayed behind began a lifestyle of cattle ranching (growing crops failed) and forestry as instructed by the agents.

    Although Meacham had won acclaim for removing Indians from Iowa to the Pacific, his personal beliefs were not totally unsympathetic to the treatment of First Americans.  In fact, he was distressed:

    • one agent had told Meacham that the best solution for the Indian problem was to “wash out the color”; many Indian agents were impregnating Indian women
    • at Fort Klamath, Modoc women could not pay for the goods they wanted, and so engaged in prostitution
    • officers took Indian women from their husbands
    • Indian husbands would not take back wives who had been seized by whites
    • many male settlers moved onto reservations and lived in a casual state with women

    Meacham issued an ultimatum to settlers on the Klamath reservation: marry, or leave.

    Despite the Modoc abandoning their ancestral home for the exponentially increasing Applegate Trail settlers, treaty promises remained unfulfilled. One of the stipulations was the establishment of a saw mill, because the newly created Klamath tribes was to support itself through the harvesting of timber. No saw mill, as promised by the Applegates, had been built.

    As a good Methodist, Meacham stood fiercely opposed to the Modoc religion and its spiritual leaders. The new tribal elections system deliberately bolstered trustworthy, if not puppet, rulers, and reduced the political power of the traditional spiritual leaders. Methodist missionaries have been the primary religious establishment among the Klamath Tribes ever since.

    Many Modoc, including Keintpoos and Cho’ocks, felt great unease at these and more developments.  Across the west, Indians resisted the missionary influence of the Meachams and began to adopt a racial view of themselves.  This was facilitated especially by the Ghost Dance, a radical, pan-Indian spiritual movement that arose during the first reservation era. The goal of the Ghost Dance was to raise the dead, who had been taken by murder, mayhem and disease, and together expel the European-American settlers. Understanding its unifying potential, the US suppressed the Ghost Dance movement with force.  For the Modoc, Curley-Headed Doctor, or Cho’ocks, was now the main spiritual leader. He acquired knowledge of the Ghost Dance from the Paiute. Meanwhile, Link River Doctor faced arrest, trial and imprisonment in 1870 at the hands of Subagent Knapp, with Meacham’s encouragement, for the practice of Modoc religion.

    Modoc people raided settlers for food. Complaints deluged Meacham’s office.

    Meacham was both retained as an agent in the region and would prove a critical actor in later events. However, J.W. Perit Huntington replaced Meacham as Oregon Superintendent. Ulysses S. Grant was president, then, and this reshuffling was in keeping with politics at the time, including the “spoils system.”

    With a growing crisis in the region, Meacham requested a separated reservation for Keintpoos’ band down at the Yainax station in the southern part of the Klamath Tribes reservation.  Like the previous attempts by various actors, this too was ignored.

    It was 1872, and in one of a multitude of ironies, Captain Jack was to be arrested for the murder of a ‘shaman.’ Traditionally, the tribe would take the life of a healer who failed to cure the sick. Not only did Keintpoos exercise a tribal duty, (not the first time he would end up vilified for fulfilling tribal obligations) he had eliminated a person whom the government itself criminalized. Notwithstanding, a warrant was issued for Captain Jack’s arrest.

    The Battle of Lost River

    Cpt. James Jackson, on orders from Ft. Klamath, marched with 40 troops to Captain Jack’s camp to force a return to the reservation. They were joined by a citizen’s militia from Linkville, (now Klamath Falls) the main European-American settlement in the basin.  At the camp on November 29th, the Modoc were ordered to disarm. After doing so a fight broke out and firing commenced.

    Quickly, the Modoc reclaimed their weapons and fled to California. They took shelter at Lava Beds, a complex series of lava tubes near Tule Lake.

    Between November 29th and 30th, Hooker Jim led a band of Modoc on a series of raids that slaughtered 18 settlers around the lake.

    This was the beginning of the 1872-1873 Modoc War.

    Centuries of Genocide is a generational series on the destruction of First Americans, or American Indian peoples. I began this series with Part I of the Modoc story. Subsequent generations will be described in the upcoming entries.


    A Matter of Perspective – The Overton Window, Reservation Life and a Chain of Sorrow

    ( – promoted by navajo)

    I’m not a Native American. I did not grow up on a Reservation. For the longest time, I had only been dimly aware of the extent and level to which Native Americans have been exploited, abused, repressed & discriminated against.

    Even now, my awareness likely only begins to scratch the surface, and yet what I’ve learned over the past few years has brought anger, grief & frustration as my awareness of both past and present bureaucratic b.s. and institutionalized standards of cultural genocide has grown.

    Recently, NPR put out a 3 part series called Native Survivors of Foster Care Return Home. (You can watch all three which are linked in the title.) Not too long ago, Metro Times posted a story called Chain of Sorrow that also speaks of the impact and legacy of Indian Boarding Schools.It’s a legacy of pain and sorrow that our nation should be ashamed of.

    While reading the latter piece, a paragraph jumped out at me which can be read more than one way. The first way it occurred to me is likely due to my less-informed perspective – but, because of that, it may also be a reflection of a more wide-spread misunderstanding.

    Here’s the paragraph, with the emphasis on the phrase that stuck out for me:

    “It wasn’t just the boarding schools that brought this about. From the time Columbus landed in the New World, the assault on Indians, their culture and their religious ways has been relentless. Their sacred lands taken, the people murdered, the women raped and, at times, subjected to forced sterilizations, the deprivation of reservation life, the scourge of alcohol – all these had combined to cause his people to lose so much.”

    [More below]

    When I first read the paragraph, it didn’t sit right – I couldn’t understand what was meant by “the deprivation of reservation life” – it first processed in my mind as “children removed from the rez would be deprived of the quality of life on the rez”…which, in the article, was cited as being the reason ~why~ some parents let their children be taken in first place. So, my initial reaction/interpretation was – I hope – incorrect. It wasn’t that a child was being deprived of life among their people on the reservation – it was the fact that conditions on the reservation itself were usually harsh and oppressive, becoming yet another aspect of the type of harm done to Native Americans as part of an ongoing (if not always externally recognized) way to continue the same cultural genocide that had begun so many years before.

    In either interpretation, however, the paragraph itself was both damning and dismal.

    What dismayed me and prompted me to write this article was the thought that immediately followed: what if my first reading of the phrase was the intended interpretation?

    That would be pretty sad – for it would present an unchallenged view of the reservation as false equivalent of a way to preserve cultures and traditions.

    Sure, there is some of that in reservation life – but, for peoples who were forcibly relocated to unwanted expanses of real estate and who previously harbored little concept of “personal property” the way the settlers conceived of it – how much of their cultural heritage was already compromised? And how much was destroyed in the process of “re-settling” them, or in the subsequent efforts to get them to conform & integrate?

    It may be the only current place where the traditions are able to be upheld, but if the belief that it’s “good” (versus a way to avoid total cultural extinction) is prevalent, then efforts to improve any relations or conditions are doomed…if not to failure, then to any sort of substantial reform without an awful lot of effort.

    Efforts to undo (and prevent further) the whitewashing of our national history with regard to the treatment of Native Americans already have a tough row to hoe. If perspectives – and the associated Overton Window that helps frame them – are still predominantly akin to what my first reading of that paragraph came away with, then there’s a very long way to go before beneficial change (for Native Americans, in their perspective) can occur.

    A parting thought, also from the Metro Times piece:

    “The realization of just how much was stolen from these people begins to set in. It wasn’t just their land, or even their way of life. What was taken was their sense of self, leaving them spiritually wounded.

    And it was done, in no small part, by taking their children.”

    Help spread the word & increase awareness: share the links to the Metro Times & NPR pieces. And share a link to Native American Netroots, too: there, people can find a great deal of information – both historical and current – about cultures, customs and ongoing issues.

    Thank you.

    How did you interpret that line in the selected paragraph?

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    “Christian” Fascists & Cultural Genocide: Burning Native Objects

    ( – promoted by Aji)

    The burning of the Library of Alexandria is either attributed to Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, to Julius Caesar, or to Moslem Caliph Omar. Regardless of whoever destroyed “The loss of the ancient world’s single greatest archive of knowledge,” the burning was about cultural destruction for the sake of power. Power to control and to eliminate viewpoints that differed with their own. Today, it is “Christian” fascists who strive to eliminate differing viewpoints to acquire the power to control.

    “Fascism is definitely and absolutely opposed to the doctrines of liberalism, both in the political and the economic sphere.”

    “Fascism most often rears its ugly head in times of turmoil and great economic difficulty.”

    Since the drafters of the Genocide Convention severely weakened the prevention part of their goal when they cut out of their document the prohibition and punishability of acts of cultural genocide,” the cultural genocide the “Christian” fascists commit by destroying Native American cultural objects may not be taken seriously. New Apostolic Leaders, however, take destroying Native American cultural objects seriously as being crucial to forcing “The Kingdom of God on the earth” and preparing the way for Christ’s return by any and all means necessary.

    The Christian Right and the Rise of American Fascism

    Dr. James Luther Adams, my ethics professor at Harvard Divinity School, told us that when we were his age, he was then close to 80, we would all be fighting the “Christian fascists.”

    The Christian Fascists Are Growing Stronger By Chris Hedges

    New Apostolic Leaders, “Christian” fascists, have burned Native American objects in Hawaii and I assume Oklahoma. But first, when would “‘Christian’ fascists” be an entirely appropriate term? When they are “without ethical or legal restraints” and show demonstrative signs of redemptive violence.


    ”A form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.”

    “without ethical or legal restraints.”

    Can anyone designated an “unlawful enemy combatant” be detained indefinitely, even a U.S. citizen?

    In describing who may be tried by military commissions, the MCA defines “unlawful enemy combatant” very broadly, so that it could encompass:

       * U.S. citizens picked up in the United States,

       *  any other person picked up anywhere in the world,

       * people who are far from any battlefield,

       * people who have not have engaged directly in any hostilities against the United States,

       * people who may not even have committed terrorist acts,

       * people whose activities have no connection to war or armed conflict,

       * anyone determined to be one by tribunals established by the President or the Secretary of Defense.

    The MCA does not explicitly authorize indefinite detention.  In fact, the principal drafters of the MCA, Senators Graham, Warner and McCain, specifically noted that the Act’s definition of “unlawful enemy combatant” applies only for purposes of trials by the military commissions.  However, there is nothing in the Act that would require “unlawful enemy combatants” to be brought to trial.  Without such a requirement, the new law leaves open the possibility that people may continue to be held indefinitely.

    The definition of “unlawful enemy combatant” also raises serious concerns because it blurs the most fundamental distinction the laws of war make between combatants and non-combatants, and between circumstances where ordinary criminal laws protect individual rights, and where the special laws of war apply.  The administration has argued that the entire world is a battlefield in “the global war against terrorism,” which it argues is a new kind of war, where few rules apply. Congressional approval of this broad “enemy combatant” definition reinforces that view.    

    And they certainly wish to remove even more “ethical or legal restraints.”

    Some attempted redemptive violence has arrived and some successful redemptive violence has occurred, the former and possibly the latter used a technique by the New Apostolic Reformation: Spiritual Mapping.


    The arrests of members of a Michigan-based “Christian” militia group should convince doubters that there is good reason to worry about right-wing, anti-government extremism — and potential violence — in the Age of Obama.

    I put the word Christian in quotes because anyone who plots to assassinate law enforcement officers, as a federal indictment alleges members of the Hutaree militia did, is no follower of Christ.

    Fox News Complicit In George Tiller’s Death

    So, what are some specific instances of cultural genocide the “Christian” fascists might accomplish or have accomplished against the American Indian in the United States?

    One of the intentions of HEALING for the NATIVES MINISTRIES is “dismantling of the cement tomb over the mass grave” at Wounded Knee.

    Converting Indians to “Scalp the Devil”: Joel’s Army

    Furthermore, “serving the Lord” also takes the form of “dismantling of the cement tomb over the mass grave” at Wounded Knee.



       Ministering to Native people has exposed a gaping hole in the soul of Indian Country. This festering wound is a result of the massacre at Wounded Knee in South Dakota and other atrocities.  The Spirit of God has given me a prophetic picture of the healing of Wounded Knee and the massacer site; including  the dismantling of the cement tomb over the mass grave and restoring the site to an original earthen mound with wild flowers and prairie grass and a lodge pole burying scaffold,  in addition, the Holy Spirit has given us access to certain items that I believe God will use to bring healing to Wounded Knee.

    – huge snip –

       The partnership of Native Ministers with the American Church will ignite revival and thrust the Body of Christ into all the world ending with the salvation of Israel.

    Spiritual Warfare necessitates proximity and location as military strategy. Specific instances of cultural genocide the “Christian” fascists have committed are burning “objects that were worshiped as part of their native religions” in Maui and “the Baal caves in the panhandle of Oklahoma” being desecrated. Both promote “act(s) of smashing pottery that depicted Baal and Leviathan.”


    Kanaka Maoli

    Native Hawaiians call themselves Kanaka Maoli.  They are descendants of the early Polynesians who arrived in these islands 1500-2000 years ago.


    “Pastor Jim Marocco… planted a church on the island of Maui. He had people bring and burn occult items, specifically objects that were worshiped as part of their native religions. After the objects were destroyed, his church experienced great growth.” (Deliver Us from Evil, page 225)


    When the first colonizers landed on the Ka Pae ‘Aina (the Hawaiian Archipelago) in 1778, they were greeted by a people who introduced themselves as the Kanaka Maoli-Kanaka meaning “human being,” Maoli meaning “real” or “genuine.” But to the colonizers they were “naked savages.” Almost immediately the process of stripping the “real” people of their land, resources, and culture began. Kekuni Blaisdell, a Kanaka Maoli from the island of O’ahu, has spent his life promoting the spiritual and physical health of the Kanaka Maoli and restoring their nation.


    Running against former Democratic Congressional Representative Neal Abercrombie to be Hawaii’s next governor, Republican Lt. Governor James “Duke” Aiona has disavowed his relationship with an international evangelical ministry called the International Transformation Network, whose leaders advocate burning religious artifacts and native art.


    John Benefiel then informed the gathering of the history of Baal in the region. He shared the story of the Baal caves in the panhandle of Oklahoma where cave drawings depict the presence of those who worshiped Baal. There were drawings of Baal (the Sun god), Anubis and calendars which marked out the equinox (the time established for worshiping Baal). The inscriptions dedicated the land to Baal. An internet article on the caves can be read at http://www2.privatei.com/~bart… Jay Swallow presented his testimony. Jay is an apostle of the Native Americans who has tremendous authority over the spiritual issues of our land.

    – snip –

    Jay taught on the unholy trio of Baal, Asherah and Leviathan. He spoke of their proliferation into the land. His teaching led us up to the prophetic act of smashing pottery that depicted Baal and Leviathan. Knowing that this authority lies with those who dwelt on this land first, it was necessary that it be carried out by a Native American.

    Swallow & “smashing Native American vessels”

    Nearly one century and a half after the death of Roman Nose, Apostle Jay Swallow is on the War Council, has accepted the apology from the United States on behalf of all Tribal Nations, wars against evil, possesses medicine to make rain, and has divine authority to commit cultural genocide.

    In addition to “Jay is an apostle of the Native Americans who has tremendous authority over the spiritual issues of our land,” he aids in running a Military training camp in Oklahoma.



    What will Jay Swallow do next, since “authority lies with those who dwelt on this land first, it was necessary that it be carried out by a Native American,” and “His teaching led us up to the prophetic act of smashing pottery that depicted Baal and Leviathan?”

    Jay Swallow Nehemiah Initaitve

    Second Chapter

    Dr. Jay has proved his authority over land issues – dealing with four things that defile the land: false worship, sexual immorality, broken covenants and the shedding of innocent blood. He has been called from Fiji to Hawaii, from Argentina to Canada and many points in between. We are honored that Dr. Jay has taken an interest in San Antonio.

    So, since cultural genocide that “Christian” fascists are committing by destroying Native American cultural objects may not be taken seriously by some –

    American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978

    On and after August 11, 1978, it shall be the policy of the United States to protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise the traditional religions of the American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Native Hawaiians, including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonials and traditional rites.

    – it’s time to enforce the law for the next generations.

    To E.L.L. and Back Again

    ( – promoted by navajo)

        Questions:  Is there any reasonable argument against the idea that a strong societal need exists for a child to grow up with the ability to function in the broader society?  Is there any reasonable argument against the idea that a strong individual need exists in every person to develop one’s own sense of being in childhood?  Is there any reasonable argument against the idea that these and other diverse childhood needs require time, adult guidance, opportunities for societal interaction, and a place to occur?  Is there any reasonable argument against the idea that the public/private school system has a responsibility to address these and other similar questions?

        Surely, any reasonable person would say that, no, there are no reasonable arguments against these kind of assertions.  Nevertheless, there are arguments that exist about certain aspects of these assertions, such as, what the “broader society” is; what a healthy sense of being within that context appears to be; how much time, in what place, and in what way adult guidance occurs; how much of the work of raising children the job of the school system is.  And in a world of finite resources, the debate swells over how much is affordable.

       It appears that the State of Arizona and the United States have concluded that not much is affordable and therefore, given the immensity that the task of educating all the children is, the economical route of one-size-fits-all mass indoctrination must be followed.  This direction is no more apparent than in the case of Arizona’s new English Language Learner (ELL) directives to all the State schools.

       The loudest voices kept clamoring for English-proficient citizens that can competently read and write in the official language of the US.  Again, there is a very strong argument for English competency for citizens to function in the broader society.  According to these loudest voices, however, nearly two-thirds of a child’s school day must be spent meeting this societal need- apparently at the expense of addressing the other diverse childhood needs.  For nearly two-thirds of a child’s school day to be spent exclusively in an ELL pullout program is an extremely unwise monopolization of time, and yet another example of socialization into mainstream society at any cost- even one’s chance at a well-rounded childhood within the context of their own community.

       For predominantly Native communities particularly, Arizona’s new ELL policy is a throwback to the “bad old days” when schools operated under the philosophy of “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”, only with a new twist:  instead of sending the children off to a boarding school environment, the State is bring the boarding school environment into the public school districts.  

       This may or may not be a case of intentional cultural genocide, but such a complete indifference by State officials to all the other diverse needs of growing children smacks of tyranny to the Native people who have been still struggling to recover from past efforts at eradicating their way of life.  It violates the civil rights of children. It violates existing federal and state laws concerning civil rights, and those of Native people in particular.  It violates the professional educational concept of best practices (pdf).  And, it violates my right as a teacher in a Native community to express myself professionally according to all of the above rights of the community and its people.

       Worse, and so ironically because it is unintentional collateral damage- surely unforeseen- is the growing number of professionally-trained teachers, who, upon being obliquely told that all their years of hard work, study, and experience have been essentially a waste of time, leaving the teaching profession, as the “one size fits all” ELL mandate, along with an increased dependence on programmed, scripted learning programs, have taken over the school systems.  Rural areas are now experiencing a chronic lack of teachers.  Prospective teachers are taking one look at the current state of educational opportunities and are just turning and walking away, shaking their heads in shocked astonishment.

       It is one thing to provide ELL resources to schools, to promote ELL best practices, to offer incentives for districts that are ably moving forward, and/or to create demonstration schools as models for success.  However, Arizona is doing little of that.  Instead, it is dictating a time segment of every day for an ELL pullout program.  And it is not just for one period per day; not just two or three periods per day.  It is for four periods a day, at least half a school day for most public schools.

       A personal experience here:  I spent three years obtaining the 26 credits- nine courses- necessary for an English as a Second Language (ESL) endorsement on my teaching certificate, all while working full-time in the classroom.  It was a lot of work, costing hundreds of dollars, but I proved I was able to succeed in an ESL classroom.  Now, I am being told that all the coursework and years of experience count for nothing.  My ELL students will be pulled out of my classrooms, separated from their classmates, preventing my chance to teach to them, preventing  their chance to learn from me, creating likely social divisions and other stigmas within the student body, and potentially shattering the entire community as a result.

       Is there a more pertinent example of cultural genocide than that?  Similar effects were the results of the boarding school days of time gone past.

       Young people suffer compulsory education during school, then grow up to find themselves lost upon graduation.  Human vices prevail for far too long and for far too many people in a shattered community.  Elders want to help, but the children are all herded into schools, sequestered within a permanent soft lockdown environment, mostly inaccessible to their own community during school hours.  People are dying to share their years of accumulated wisdom with the children, but with rare exceptions are being prevented from doing so in any kind of structured way within the school system.  Then along comes another state and federal mandate that monopolizes the available time in a child’s day and narrowly restricts what can be taught, how it is to be taught, who can teach it, and what defines success.

       In some contexts the label ELL is a sign of a language deficiency in a child.  However, in a Native culture, and in other contexts, ELL is an indication of hope that a child is still being raised in a strong, Native cultural environment.  Laws mandating fixed hours of ELL instruction are crushing that hope, as if grinding Native cultural aspirations under the heels of jackbooted thugs, more interested in producing compliant workers serving powerful moneyed interests rather than informed citizens capable of succeeding in life, and making valuable contributions to their own communities.

       Those who would put their ideology over others are practicing a modern version of Manifest Destiny.  This is what is going on in public schools in Native communities.  Indigenous languages are being lost at an alarming rate.  Native people do not wish to lose their language.  When language is lost, cultural practices and traditions follow.  Native people want to retain their culture, not lose it.

       As a teacher, I have met with hundreds of parents, the overwhelming majority of who are Native people.  Did any of our legislators even attempt to listen to these parents as they were writing this ELL law?  I can say with complete confidence that these parents all want their child to succeed, whether in their own community, or somewhere else in the “culturally foreign” world.  In fact, they want both.  Instead, they are continually facing hubris-saturated legislated opposition to their legitimate wishes.

       What the Arizona legislature fails to realize is just how pathetic the State’s school system is in the eyes of not only these parents, but also in the eyes of educators everywhere.  They fail to realize the consequences of their education legislation in terms of financial cost as well as social cost.  The culturally oppressive mandates of the Arizona legislature serve to reinforce the imperialistic roots of the English-speaking power elite in this state.  The reasoning for English-only laws and ELL rules in the classrooms falters in the presence of best practices, further reinforcing its racist nature.  Whenever the spectre of racism is invoked, policymakers vehemently deny it is the motivation behind their policies.  Yet to an oppressed culture, there is little difference between overt racism and the de facto racism these policies engender.

       And make no mistake, ELL policies that monopolize the time children must spend learning English only are culturally invasive, by definition.  It is one thing when an invasive plant or animal (think zebra mussel) takes over a piece of the natural landscape.  But humans are supposed to be able to do better.  History is full of examples of when people do better.  Sadly, this is not one of those times.  The rationale of Manifest Destiny looms again, conveniently obscuring a gross violation of the civil rights of an oppressed people.  In the face of historical facts, how can anyone be okay with that?

       Where is the data that even hints that the Arizona ELL laws are anything but a miserly, money-saving response to the Flores decision (pdf)?  How cynically unfair is the attitude behind legislation that sells out Dine’ and other cultures just to save a buck, and then congratulates itself for being so thrifty!  There are certainly plenty reasons to be thrifty- it is a virtue, after all- but the real truth is that per pupil costs in Arizona (pdf) reflect more than thriftiness.  Per pupil costs in Arizona sadly also reflect a violation of civil rights of minorities, as shown through the ELL laws.

       To whomever asserts that this is a debatable issue, all I can ask is since when are civil rights in the US a debatable issue?

       For the past 13 years, I have had the honor to live and teach in Navajoland.  It is a responsibility that I do not take lightly.  The patience of the people helped me to understand their culture, their community, their hopes and dreams, as well as their expectations for me as a teacher.  The people of Navajoland do not expect me to replace their culture with my own, although they do expect me to prepare their children to participate in the greater (though not necessarily better) society.  There is a difference.  An educational policy that dictates to a community how much time every day is spent in an ELL pullout program is an example of the former.  It not only elbows out community standards, it presumes to judge the community’s culture on that basis.  This is prejudice.  Again, the Dine’ people have acknowledged, all the way back to the days of Manuelito and Barboncito, the importance of public education for their children.  In Navajo culture, prejudice is disrespectful.  What is it today in the greater society of Arizona?

       Why is disrespect for Native cultures considered a necessary evil in today’s society, as it was in the boarding school days?  How much longer must we labor under the philosophy of “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”, that was so zealously followed in the past that entire tribal cultures were destroyed in the process?  Make no mistake about it:  Such an attitude is not only disrespectful, it is genocidal.  This is the shameful legacy we Americans must endure, but surely not prolong.  To follow such a policy toward Native people, and then be in denial about its racist and prejudicial basis bespeaks of indifference, uncaring, cynicism, and disrespect that is hardly any more virtuous than the overt racism of an earlier time.  It is still wrong, and it is astonishing to me how the the ELL policies that are an outgrowth of this attitude(pdf)” became law in this, the twenty-first century.

       If, in fact, the Arizona legislature is sincere about supporting English education in public schools, they would assign their aides the task of reviewing and summarizing for them the professional literature on ELL best practices.  They would establish their own set of standards concerning bills that would correctly address civil rights issues in the lawmaking process.  They would stop calling their lack of fiscal support for public education a virtue, and they would learn to work with Native, and other minority, cultures in a way that benefits all, rather than solely the business community’s need for cheap, urban labor.

    More ranting here.

    Desecration of Ceremony is Cultural Genocide

    ( – promoted by navajo)

    How can you educate the dominant culture, a mindset, that the desecration of Native American ceremony is cultural genocide?


    As early as 1933, Raphael Lemkin proposed a cultural component to genocide, which he called “vandalism.” However, the drafters of the 1948 Genocide Convention dropped that concept from their consideration.

    One must make a connection between making profit from cultural components considered sacred, and to the severe damage done to the indigenous culture being preyed on and profited from. While indigenous people yet suffer the effects of a 500 year Holocaust, the overall dominant culture adheres to genocide denial. Plastic Medicine men charging money for fake ceremonies and the people who pay them is the issue at hand. Why is the desecration of Native American ceremonies cultural genocide? One word – relationships.

    A Medicine Man, as known in the “public domain,” is one chosen through tribal custom within a series of relationships or clan. However, a Plastic Medicine man is self proclaimed and arrogantly so. How arrogant would it be to barge into a Sovereign Nation and proclaim you’re a leader? It’s laughable, but enter one lesser known aspect of real Medicine Men: they have responsibilities they can not refuse. Ask a Plastic Medicine man for a healing ceremony at an inconvenient time, and their wallet will outweigh your needs. Sounds somewhat like the Health Care debate, doesn’t it? But Plastic Medicine men go way beyond that.

    Plastic Medicine men take a little of this, combine it with a little of that, and then create a “product.” Next, they market it as authentic.

    During the exterminations there were also survivors; or, the raw materials for a Plastic Medicine man’s “product” from their point of view. Survivors, like their exterminated relatives, were hunted like animals. Indeed, I know someone who related a story of historical trauma. His friend’s grandparent still wore shoes when they slept at night and
    kept all their belongings in boxes, because as a child they were always fleeing Custer. This person’s cultural beliefs are that there are sacred objects, sacred ceremonies, and sacred land given to their people to survive.


    The Oct. 9 headlines read: “Sweat lodge disaster” and “2 dead, 19 taken to hospitals, 64 people in sweat lodge.”

    Except that it wasn’t a real sweat lodge. It was a bastardized version of a sacred ceremony sold by a multimillionaire who charged people $9,695 a pop for his “Spiritual Warrior” retreat in Sedona, Ariz.

    The man responsible, self-help spiritual entrepreneur James Arthur Ray, claimed the New Age retreat would absolutely “change your life.”

    And their sacred sites are tied to their sacred ceremonies and to their sacred objects. Sacred sites of many tribes are yet being encroached upon by energy companies and the military. So land theft continues, while Plastic Medicine men present Frankenstein as a Holy Man and charge a hefty price for their freak show.



    But don’t ask which sacred relics he robbed from indigenous graves to bring his or her monster to life, you might end up dead.


    1. We hereby and henceforth declare war against all persons who persist in exploiting, abusing and misrepresenting the sacred traditions and spiritual practices of our Lakota, Dakota and Nakota people.

    A Teaching Assistant Cut A First Nations Child’s Hair

    ( – promoted by navajo)

    There’s a reason Kevin Annett has a petition stating, “apparent refusal to investigate suspected crime sites related to the mass burials of children who died in Indian residential schools.”


    The child was touched without permission, during this time the assailant was holding what we can easily refer to as a “deadly weapon” given that you could hypothetically be killed by a pair of scissors. In fact, it is not a stretch to imagine this happening.

    Speculating, one reason for the petition is so that the horrid history of genocide, of which cultural genocide is included in my opinion, will stop repeating.

    The child is native and therefore having long hair is not simply a fashion statement but rather something tied to the child’s culture. Cutting off the hair of male native children was regularly done at residential schools, where the goal was to “kill the indian and save the child”.

    “If a First Nations teacher had taken the same actions with a non-native child, there would have been a swift and strong response,” Falconer said. “The Crown attorney wouldn’t be confused about the definition of consent and those non-native children would have been deemed worthy of protection.

    “The message here is that First Nations children are somehow less worthy of protection than non-native children.”

    So, a teaching assistant trimmed the bangs of a seven year old First Nations child in order to “facilitate the child’s reading.” The teaching assistant did so instead of contacting the parents, asking them to braid their child’s hair, or to have it tied back to facilitate the child’s education. There are aural means of teaching children to read, and it’s simply ridiculous to imagine the child’s hair was so long, their work could not be done. What makes this cultural genocide?

    Falconer said the parents had come to the school in the fall after the same teacher’s aide ridiculed their older son, who also keeps his hair long. They explained that the boys wear their hair long in order to participate in ceremonial First Nations’ dancing.

    That does. No wonder Canada and the US didn’t sign the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

    In analyzing the individual parts of the Declaration, we see that all new rules of customary international law, as found in our respective surveys of state and international practice of 1999, 2001, and 2004, still remain part of the global consensus. As stated in 1999, “indigenous peoples are entitled to maintain and develop their distinct cultural identity, their spirituality, their language, and their traditional ways of life.” Most of the provisions of the Declaration go to the preservation of culture, language, religion, and identity; and state practice in the states with indigenous peoples largely conforms to these legal tenets. Due to the strength of the indigenous renascence throughout the world, the original goal of assimilation of indigenous cultures into the maelstrom of the modern world has largely been abandoned in favor of preservation and reinvigoration of indigenous cultures, languages and religions. The legal guarantees of these claims are, however, not the real bones of contention.


    The original draft of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, prepared by the United Nations (UN) Secretariat and based on the work of Lemkin, included definitions of physical genocide, biological genocide, and cultural genocide. The latter was defined as follows:

    Destroying the specific characteristics of the group by:

    • (a) forcible transfer of children to another human group; or

    • (b) forced and systematic exile of individuals representing the culture of a group; or

    • (c) prohibition of the use of the national language even in private intercourse; or

    • (d) systematic destruction of books printed in the national language or of religious works or prohibition of new publications; or

    • (e) systematic destruction of historical or religious monuments or their diversion to alien uses, destruction or dispersion of documents and objects of historical, artistic, or religious value and of objects used in religious worship.

    To conclude, the reason that what the teacher’s assistant did was cultural genocide can be found conclusively in “(e).” If the specific tribe the child is a part of believes as I do, that my body is my only possession and that it is all I have to offer to the Creator or something similar,

    Falconer said the parents had come to the school in the fall after the same teacher’s aide ridiculed their older son, who also keeps his hair long. They explained that the boys wear their hair long in order to participate in ceremonial First Nations’ dancing.

    then that would by definition be “destruction or dispersion of documents and objects of historical, artistic, or religious value and of objects used in religious worship.” Except for the fact, that the child’s hair is no mere “object.” Furthermore, until we respect all differences of culture, we will not achieve the peace we all so desperately want and need.

    Newcomb: Dehumanization in U.S. Indian Law and Policy

    The dehumanization of our Indian peoples has been manifested in many ways. The countless massacres, the forced removals, the boarding schools that tore Indian children away from their extended families, communities and nations, the sterilizations of Indian women in IHS hospitals in the 1970s, the attack on our languages, on our spiritual and ceremonial traditions, on our sacred places. These are just a few examples of the ways in which we have been continuously dehumanized by the United States.

    – snip –

    Why weren’t Indian peoples considered to have human rights? Simple; they weren’t considered fully human. Upon reflection, dehumanization is what made the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples imperative. Its adoption by the United Nations General Assembly on Sept. 13, 2007, was a long-awaited endorsement of the fundamental human rights of indigenous peoples. It was the result of decades of work to put an end to the dehumanization of indigenous nations and peoples globally. Passage of that document sends the message that because indigenous peoples are fully human we possess and have always possessed fundamental human rights, including the collective right of self-determination, despite centuries of being regarded and treated as not fully human.

    C. Peter Wagner & Native American Resource Network

    ( – promoted by navajo)

    “Mr. Joel’s Army himself,” C. Peter Wagner, is in the video below. The title of it is “Native American Christian Reconciliation Ministry.”

    Rick Warren’s (amazingly extensive) connections with Joel’s Army groups

    a) Apparently being directly mentored by none other than Mr. Joel’s Army himself (C. Peter Wagner) and actively teaching at Wagner’s ordination mill, Fuller Seminary and cross-promotion of Wagner’s and Warren’s material by the two

    Below is the type of rhetoric heard in the video.


    They are GATE KEEPERS for this land…  this is part of the healing for America…  God told Bobby Conner that we had to COME THROUGH THEM INTO AMERICA!!!

    One of the Indian leaders prays for REVIVAL to come to America and to all of the First Nation People…Bob Jones comes up…  the First Nation People are the keepers of the land…  they have the ability to bless the land…  they are a spiritual people…  when they get saved, they naturally know how to flow in the Spirit.

    Furthermore, this is written by Jean Steffenson of the “Native American Resource Network,” who was in the video along with “Mr. Joel’s Army himself,” C. Peter Wagner.…

    The other native leaders expressed a deep gratitude for the Word of God that came and repented for the resistance that had been built against the gospel. They welcomed King Jesus into the land to take His place and fill this land with His glorious presence. Jay shut the gate to the Babylonian spirit and made some declarations that I believe engaged the angels of God and terrified the demonic powers.

    What is “the gate to the Babylonian spirit” that she believes “terrified the demonic powers?” Let’s review what we know first.

    First, an overview of  “Reconciliation” Cultural Genocide.…

    Use of Reconciliation Events

    Glazier is on the board of the International Reconciliation Coalition founded by John

    Dawson, International President of YWAM (Youth With a Mission). The reconciliation

    approach, including reconciliation walks, has been used to gain access to Native American groups in the U.S and Canada, and also to African Americans, Amish, Turkish Muslims, and other groups around the world. Link to “Palin and the Apostles” for an account of New Apostolics in a prophetic ceremony representing the shielding of Native Alaskans from interference from other churches and social services.

    Reconciliation is designed to remove the generational curses and other demons which are

    preventing the target group from being open to evangelization. For instance, a reconciliation walk in Turkey in 1999 was advertised as apologizing for the Crusades to the Muslim population. However, following the reconciliation walk, the New Apostolics embarked on an aggressive proselytizing campaign which included a ceremony in the Ephesus amphitheater. Organized by Ted Haggard and others and with participation of groups from Korea, they chanted Jesus is Lord for four hours in the amphitheater.

    Second, let’s review a reconciliation event that ended in “native artifacts and ritual items like carved masks were thrown into bonfires.”


    The New Apostolic Reformation was formed as an institution through the efforts of C. Peter Wagner. More details on the history of this movement are in the section “Sources of the Transformations.” Wagner has developed a network of 500 Apostles, most with Apostolic networks of their own over which they have authority. In addition to this structure there is a national and international structure of “prayer warriors” overseen by Apostles. Initially named the Spiritual Warfare Network, this structure has been renamed twice, first to the United States Strategic Prayer Network (USSPN), and again recently to the United States Global Apostolic Prayer Network (USGAPN). There is also an international network under the authority of Wagner.

    – snip –

    However, the story moves on to one island area that remained blighted despite the miracles. This is an island on which the indigenous populations’ ancestors had killed a missionary in 1867. The video shows the process through which the community prayed, fasted, and repented of this generational curse. Like other vignettes in the Transformation videos, native artifacts and ritual items like carved masks were thrown into bonfires. The descendants of the murdered (and eaten) missionary traveled to the island to attend a ceremony of repentance by the inhabitants and release them from the generational curse. The island was also miraculously renewed after the event, including the immediate cleansing of a poisonous polluted stream.

    Now, what is “the gate to the Babylonian spirit” that Jean Steffenson believes “terrified the demonic powers?”

    The repentance, forgiveness and declarations that took place at Plymouth Rock and the town of Plymouth, MA September 27th got the attention of God and His adversaries. Jeremiah 1:10 came to my mind as we stood at this historical and present day gateway. There were many things that took root at this gate and were spread throughout the country, some good – some bad. The pilgrims no doubt loved God and wanted to serve Him. Yet In their zeal to have religious freedom they inadvertently gave place to a religious spirit. They sought a place of liberty to practice their beliefs and they fell into that age-old trap of legalism as was evident in their ministry to the native people. On the good side was the Indian’s friend, John Elliot, who brought them the gospel with

    the love of God.

    And just who was this “Indian’s friend, John Elliot” who demanded the American Indians act “civilized” by farming, wearing English clothes, cutting their hair, cease practicing their culture, and discarding their real names for English ones?

    Excerpt from “Puritans, Indians & Manifest Destiny” (Charles M. Segal and David C. Stineback. pp. 155-157.

    In 1647, one year after Massachusetts launched its missionary effort, John Eliot recorded – with what must have been some embarrassment – a question put to him by Wabbakoxets, reputed to have been an old powwow: “…why did we never teach them to know God till now?….”

    “It is therefore ordered and decreed, by this Court, for the honor of the eternal God, whom only we worship & serve, that no person within the jurisdiction, whether Christian or pagan, either by willful or obstinate denying the true God, or his creation or government of the world, or shall curse God, or reproach the holy religion of God, as if it were but a politic device to keep ignorant men in awe, nor shall utter any other eminent kind of blasphemy, of the like nature & degree; if any person or persons whatsoever, within our jurisdiction, shall break this law they shall be put to death.”

    What a perfect compliment to Joel’s Army that is.

    One of the parts of their theology that is very rarely discussed–save by a few of us researchers–is that they are one of the very few groups on the planet to literally have a theological mandate for not only genocide but near omnicide–both pre- and post-Tribulation.  Combined with the known use of coercive tactics and the decidedly unique interpretations of Biblical verses that claim they’re part of an end-time army of “God Warriors”…it’s not exaggeration to state this is a potential threat to humanity.

    – big snip –

    And if this doesn’t scare you yet–these groups may have influence to the very highest levels of government and documented histories of particularly horrific genocides (ask Guatemala about the hell it endured under Gen. Rios Montt sometime)…and the largest denomination embracing “Joel’s Army” theology has an estimated membership of nearly three million people…and they’ve rather explicitly targeted the largest Protestant denomination in the US, the Southern Baptist Convention, for total conversion from within.

    To conclude, I’m reposting the first part of Opinion: American Fascists or Christian Fascists?

    American fascism is the term used by Dr. James Luther Adams, who “was in Germany in 1935 and 1936 and worked with the underground anti-Nazi church.” He said that American fascists would dismantle the open society, using scripture, during “prolonged social instability or a national crisis.” Either of those conditions certainly meets the living conditions on many reservations of their social structure and their Nation. I argue from definition that “Christian fascists” or American fascists are appropriate to be applied to those who christianize Indigenous People as well as to be applied to those who committed  “the slaughters of yesteryear” for the following reasons:

    Duncan Campbell Scott, an Indian Affairs Superintendent, created the term “Final Solution;” Christianizing Indigenous People has historically destroyed cultures and languages, an activity still practiced; Baer before the U.N. said, “the international community should begin to view the violation of language rights as a crime against humanity;” and, the fact that Indigenous People exist in the post Extermination stage of genocide, while the general dominant culture practices the post Extermination stage of genocide, which is Denial. To clarify, the word genocide was not created until 1944 by Raphael Lemkin, “The term ‘Final Solution”‘was not coined by the Nazis, but by Indian Affairs Superintendent Duncan Campbell Scott in April of 1910 when he referred to how he envisioned the “Indian Problem” being resolved.” Hence, Christian fascism or American fascism by definition is appropriate when discussing christianizing Indigenous People, and is appropriate to be applied to those who committed “the slaughters of yesteryear” – strictly my own opinion. Lastly, I think both Christian fascism and American fascism should have two categories: violent fascism and non – violent fascism (for the post Extermination stage of genocide) with definitions fitting both categories and used according to the timeline. Let me explain.

    I would say that Christian fascists were and are more motivated by Christendom. For example, Columbus’s first voyage in 1492 combined with his religious motivations for making it led Pope Alexander VI to issue a Papal Bull in 1493. Pope Alexander VI ordered Ferdinand and Isabella to observe and to do the following:  that the primary purpose of all future voyages and ensuing discoveries of land and people was to Christianize and “overthrow” any Nations who resisted; that Columbus himself be used for the next voyage, since there was consensus among Columbus, Ferdinand, Isabella, and the Papacy with regards to spreading Christianity to the entire world; that the Indians might have been good converts; that all this was to be carried out “By the Authority of Almighty God;” that it applied to the entire world; that any possible Christian rulers were to not be overthrown; that Ferdinand and Isabella had power over such possible Christian rulers, while the Papacy had power over them and any possible Christian rulers; that overthrown Nations would have a Christian ruler put in place; that anyone who traded with anyone who overthrew a Christian ruler would be excommunicated; and that anyone who went against the Papal Bull would “Incur the wrath of Almighty God.”


    From the moment of its birth Christianity had envisioned the end of the world. Saints and theologians differed on many details about the end, but few disagreements were as intense as those concerned with the nature and timing of the events involved…As word of these predictions spread, the most fundamental affairs of both Church and state were affected. And there had been no previous time in human history when ideas were able to circulate further or more rapidly, for it was in the late 1430s that Johann Gutenberg developed the technique of printing with movable type cast in molds. It has been estimated that as many as 20 million books-and an incalculable number of pamphlets and tracts-were produced and distributed in Europe between just 1450 and 1500.”

    I think Christian fascists, which could be an international term, have more motivations from Christendom than do American fascists.