Manifest Destiny Begins

During the nineteenth century, the United States aggressively pursued a policy of Manifest Destiny to spread out between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. In the minds of many Americans, it was the God-given duty of the United States to spread across the continent. In 1804, the United States began trudging its way toward Manifest Destiny. The Corps of Discovery under the leadership of Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set off to explore the northern Missouri River area. Part of the purpose of this expedition was to inform the Indian nations on the Northern Plains that they were now under the jurisdiction of the United States. For this purpose, Lewis and Clark held a number of councils with Indian nations. In terms of diplomacy, the United States prefers to deal with dictatorships and so Lewis and Clark simply appointed chiefs themselves for many of the Indian nations which they encountered

.What Came Before:

 In 1802, President Thomas Jefferson obtained a copy of the book written by Sir Alexander MacKenzie who had crossed Canada to the Pacific Ocean on behalf of the North West Company. Jefferson and his secretary, Meriwether Lewis, were inspired by the book and felt that an American expedition should cross the continent to the Pacific Ocean. Anthropologist Raymond Wood, in his book Prologue to Lewis and Clark: The Mackay and Evans Expedition, writes:

“Perhaps no one read the book more intently than that nation’s recently elected president, Thomas Jefferson, for the volume contained nothing less than a blueprint for the British acquisition of western North America and its commerce, a coup that would deny its riches to the ever expanding Republic.”

Historian James Ronda, in his chapter in North American Exploration. Volume 3: A Continent Comprehended, reports:

“After reading the book, Thomas Jefferson took actions leading directly to the Lewis and Clark expedition.”

In 1803, the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France. Under the Doctrine of Discovery, what the United States purchased was the right to govern the area because a “Christian” nation has the right to govern “non-Christian” nations. The United States did not purchase the land: under international law at the time, Indian nations were recognized as the land owners. Later treaties would be negotiated with Indian nations to obtain title to the land.

With regard to the inhabitants of the Louisiana Territory, Article III of the treaty between the United States and France says:

“they shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and the religion which they profess.”

Many people assume that this refers only to the European inhabitants and that religion refers only to Christianity.

In 1804, official ceremonies were held at St. Louis transferring Louisiana to the jurisdiction of the United States. Historian Landon Jones, in his book William Clark and the Shaping of the West, notes:

“The most prominent absentees at the Three Flags Ceremony were the Indians who actually controlled the lands being transferred.”

Jones also observes:

“Four thousand people lived in the single agricultural complex at the Mandan-Hidatsa villages, more than in the American capital of Washington City.”


The Otoe (also spelled Oto) and Missouria were Siouan-speaking peoples who were closely related to the Winnebago and Iowa. The Otoe and Missouria had been a single nation until two chiefs quarreled and divided them into two distinct nations.

Near present-day Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, Meriwether Lewis held a council with the Otoe-Missouria. While six chiefs were present, the two principal chiefs – Little Thief and Big Horse – were not in attendance. The Indians were promised a dependable fur trade and Lewis stressed that the Indians would be destroyed if they did not acknowledge the power of the United States.

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark scheduled another meeting with the Otoe-Missouria, this time with the Omaha invited so that they could mend a rift between the two groups. However, the party found the Omaha village deserted and in ruins.

After passing the deserted Omaha village, a party of Otoe-Missouria, including Little Thief and Big Horse, rode into Lewis and Clark’s camp. Lewis held council with them and explained that they were now a part of the United States. There is no report on the chiefs’ reactions to this news.


The designation Sioux has been applied to a number of related, but autonomous, Plains Indian groups. Since they had reputations as fierce warriors, many depravations against non-Indians were blamed on them. For example, when one of the Americans with the Corps of Discovery, John Colter, reported that his horse had been stolen, it was presumed that the nearby band of Sioux had been the culprits.

Near the present-day site of Pierre, South Dakota, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark encountered the Sioux and attempted to hold council with them. They had some language difficulties since none of their interpreters were fluent in the language. In some instances there was confusion and the threat of violence. According to James Ronda:

“The Partisan and his retinue proved the most aggressive, at one point causing the usually unflappable Clark to draw his sword.”

Lewis designated Black Buffalo as the leading chief. Black Buffalo was given a medal, a military coat, and a cocked hat. Two other chiefs, Partisan and Buffalo Medicine, were given medals. The Indian response to the gifts is described by historian Stephen Ambrose in his book Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West:

“‘That’s all?’ the Tetons demanded, unbelieving. Some worthless medals and a silly hat.”

The gift-giving was two-way as historian James Ronda reports:

“And the captains received a gift that did not translate well across the cultural divide—bedmates, a mark of respect accorded to distinguished guests.”


The Arikara (sometimes known as the Ree) were village people and farmers who lived along the Missouri River. They were a Caddo-speaking group closely related to the Pawnee. While they did hunt buffalo, they were not a nomadic hunting people.

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark held council with the Arikara in South Dakota. Believing that every Indian nation had to have only one leader, they designated Crow at Rest as the principal chief, and Hawk Feather and Chief Hay as secondary chiefs. Hawk Feather and Chief Hay boycotted the second day of the council, insulted at not having been considered as primary chiefs. Both were village chiefs, as was Crow at Rest.


The Osage were a Siouan-speaking group who had been one people with the Kaw, Omaha, Ponca, and Quapaw. Their territory in 1804 was along the Osage River in what is now Missouri. They were semi-nomadic and maintained farming villages.

In Washington, D.C, an Osage delegation under the leadership of White Hair arrived for talks with the Americans. The delegation was the first in a series of Indian visits to the Capital arranged by Meriwether Lewis. White Hair urged President Thomas Jefferson to abandon his plans for expansion west of the Mississippi, saying that it would upset both his people and the Spanish.

Modern Indian Scouts For Christian Fascists

A historical paradox is that once a people are freed, they sometimes become the aggressors. For instance, the Texans who defeated the Mexicans in the Texas Revolution fought exterminated the Comanche; some freed slaves became Buffalo Soldiers and joined the genocide campaign. Today, there are Christianized American Indians, and Christianized into Dominionism, who commit cultural genocide. They are the hidden face of Dominionism.

These dominionist American Indians are either ignorant of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and their history, or they do not care (anymore).

American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978

On and after August 11, 1978, it shall be the policy of the United States to protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise the traditional religions of the American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Native Hawaiians, including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonials and traditional rites.

These modern day Indian scouts for the Christian Fascists may do it for one reason or another, but no one knows why they do it but them.


After his conversion Chief Red Cloud gave up the land where Holy Rosary Mission was built. He asked to be buried at the Holy Rosary cemetery in the black robe of the Catholic priests. He was granted his wish. He and other tribal leaders then proceeded to give up land for other religious orders to build their churches and schools.

Would Crazy Horse have done the same if he had surrendered his freedom to become an Agency Indian?

Despite the general history.


Since the colonizing British, and subsequently the Americans, had little use for Indian servitude, but only wanted Indian land, they appealed to other Christian and European sources of wisdom to justify their genocide: the Indians were Satan’s helpers, they were lascivious and murderous wild men of the forest, they were bears, they were wolves, they were vermin. Allegedly having shown themselves to be beyond conversion to Christian or to civil life-and with little British or American need for them as slaves-in this case, straightforward mass killing of the Indians was deemed the only thing to do.

Or despite the more specific history.

Theodore Roosevelt…

The fourth face you see on that “Stony Mountain” is America’s first twentieth century president, alleged American hero, and Nobel peace prize recipient, Theodore Roosevelt. This Indian fighter firmly grasped the notion of Manifest Destiny saying that America’s extermination of the Indians and thefts our their lands “was ultimately beneficial as it was inevitable”. Roosevelt once said, “I don’t go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn’t like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth”. (Stannard, Op.Cit.)

They have nonetheless chosen to be modern Indian scouts for the Christian Fascists.

Researching U.S. Army Indian Scouts, 1866-1914 By Trevor K. Plante

The Army Reorganization Act of 1866 authorized the President “to enlist and employ in the Territories and Indian country a force of Indians not to exceed one thousand to act as scouts, who shall receive the pay and allowances of cavalry soldiers, and be discharged whenever the necessity for further employment is abated, at the discretion of the department commander.” One of the most significant measures in the act was that Indians would receive the same pay as white cavalry soldiers.

Jay Swallow of the New Apostolic Reformation, Cheyenne-Sioux, is in charge of Christianizing Native Americans nationally, and he runs the Spiritual Warfare Military training camp in Bixby, Oklahoma.

In 2004 Drs. Swallow and Bigpond saw the need of Spiritual Warfare Training and developed The Strategic Warriors At Training Boot Camps. There was an enormous amount of prophetic information throughout this nation concerning a major move of the Spirit of God in visiting the Tribes of this hemisphere. It was discerned that the enemy had planted himself within the areas targeted for transformation. A state of emergency had risen as the result of this resistance by the enemy in Indian country.

(Start at 5:50)

You Tube Video

They “practice” burning sacred Native American objects at that “training camp” in Oklahoma. Directly or indirectly, his influence to motivate somebody to commit cultural genocide spread up to Wisconsin (2012) and down to Texas (2007).

Will Arson Attack Cause Holy War Between Born-Agains and Natives?

On the night of July 17 and early morning of July 18, six suspicious fires destroyed three traditional ceremonial structures on the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Ojibwe (LCO) reservation in northern Wisconsin, and two other structures were also severely damaged. The destroyed buildings included a ceremonial lodge, historic home for generations of big drum ceremonies and two private sweat lodges. A big drum dance ring as well as a structure at the pow wow grounds, home of the long-running Honor the Earth pow wow was damaged. An RV that served as the residence for Paul DeMain, a longtime journalist on LCO, was completely destroyed, and the main building on his property, home to News From Indian Country was also partially burned.


Christopher Grover, an LCO tribal member, was reportedly arrested not long after as a “person of interest” in the cases. Grover, 38, has ties to local evangelicals who embrace elements of a growing ideological movement that has been known to equate  traditional Native spirituality with a dangerous form of idolatry, even witchcraft.


Bruce Wilson of Talk2Action, a website dedicated to challenging the claims of the religious right, published what he says is an archived report by International Coalition of Apostles member Tom Schlueter in which he describes a ceremony in Olney, Texas in 2007 during which apostles-including Jay Swallow, Cheyenne-Sioux-smashed “Native American matrimonial vases” representing the demon powers of Baal and Leviathan.

And what is the correlation between the States and Canada in 2011, insofar as this Cultural Genocide is concerned?

“The Council hereby unanimously declares that the sweat lodge is to be dismantled and removed, and that all sweat lodge practices in the community immediately cease. Oujé-Bougoumou will continue to uphold its faith in and guidance by God.”

Though disappointed by this ruling, Mianscum hoped the council would reconsider, but he also began seeking legal and political assistance, writing to human rights attorneys and other Cree leadership.

Meanwhile, the Oujé-Bougoumou band council notified Lana Wapachee by letter in early December that several elders and community members were coming to her property to take the sweat lodge down. And they did. It was dismantled on Dec. 6 as Mianscum and dozens of community members stood witness. Police said the outer structure had to be dismantled as well. All the materials were left in a pile in the yard.

I can’t say if there is a direct correlation, yet the mindset is very similar here and in Canada. I’ve written 8 diaries over this since 2009, and I can only come to one conclusion.……………………

The Sand Creek Massacre brought to light one predominant thought: the whites didn’t kill them just for the land, the whites wanted all Indians dead. So, these plastic Christians aren’t assimilating Native Americans to “save” them, they want ALL INDIAN RELIGION DEAD. Furthermore, they must use modern Indian Scouts to “track” them. Combat tracking was used as a method of trailing and gathering information on the enemy until finally locating and attacking them. Units such as Churches Rangers tracked enemy Indian bands through forests and swamps to conduct attacks on their camps.

I conclude with a line from the Two Rivers Native American Training Center’s website.

(bold mine)

A state of emergency had risen as the result of this resistance by the enemy in Indian country.



Greatly varied though the specific details of individual cases may be, throughout the Americas today indigenous peoples continue to be faced with one form or another of a five-centuries-old dilemma. At the dawn of the fifteenth century, Spanish conquistadors and priests presented the Indians they encountered with a choice: either give up your religion and culture and land and independence, swearing allegiance “as vassals” to the Catholic Church and the Spanish Crown, or suffer “all the mischief and damage” that the European invaders choose to inflict upon you. It was called the requerimiento. The deadly predicament that now confronts native peoples is simply a modern requerimiento: surrender all hope of continued cultural integrity and effectively cease to exist as autonomous peoples, or endure as independent peoples the torment and deprivation we select as your fate.

To E.L.L. and Back Again

( – promoted by navajo)

    Questions:  Is there any reasonable argument against the idea that a strong societal need exists for a child to grow up with the ability to function in the broader society?  Is there any reasonable argument against the idea that a strong individual need exists in every person to develop one’s own sense of being in childhood?  Is there any reasonable argument against the idea that these and other diverse childhood needs require time, adult guidance, opportunities for societal interaction, and a place to occur?  Is there any reasonable argument against the idea that the public/private school system has a responsibility to address these and other similar questions?

    Surely, any reasonable person would say that, no, there are no reasonable arguments against these kind of assertions.  Nevertheless, there are arguments that exist about certain aspects of these assertions, such as, what the “broader society” is; what a healthy sense of being within that context appears to be; how much time, in what place, and in what way adult guidance occurs; how much of the work of raising children the job of the school system is.  And in a world of finite resources, the debate swells over how much is affordable.

   It appears that the State of Arizona and the United States have concluded that not much is affordable and therefore, given the immensity that the task of educating all the children is, the economical route of one-size-fits-all mass indoctrination must be followed.  This direction is no more apparent than in the case of Arizona’s new English Language Learner (ELL) directives to all the State schools.

   The loudest voices kept clamoring for English-proficient citizens that can competently read and write in the official language of the US.  Again, there is a very strong argument for English competency for citizens to function in the broader society.  According to these loudest voices, however, nearly two-thirds of a child’s school day must be spent meeting this societal need- apparently at the expense of addressing the other diverse childhood needs.  For nearly two-thirds of a child’s school day to be spent exclusively in an ELL pullout program is an extremely unwise monopolization of time, and yet another example of socialization into mainstream society at any cost- even one’s chance at a well-rounded childhood within the context of their own community.

   For predominantly Native communities particularly, Arizona’s new ELL policy is a throwback to the “bad old days” when schools operated under the philosophy of “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”, only with a new twist:  instead of sending the children off to a boarding school environment, the State is bring the boarding school environment into the public school districts.  

   This may or may not be a case of intentional cultural genocide, but such a complete indifference by State officials to all the other diverse needs of growing children smacks of tyranny to the Native people who have been still struggling to recover from past efforts at eradicating their way of life.  It violates the civil rights of children. It violates existing federal and state laws concerning civil rights, and those of Native people in particular.  It violates the professional educational concept of best practices (pdf).  And, it violates my right as a teacher in a Native community to express myself professionally according to all of the above rights of the community and its people.

   Worse, and so ironically because it is unintentional collateral damage- surely unforeseen- is the growing number of professionally-trained teachers, who, upon being obliquely told that all their years of hard work, study, and experience have been essentially a waste of time, leaving the teaching profession, as the “one size fits all” ELL mandate, along with an increased dependence on programmed, scripted learning programs, have taken over the school systems.  Rural areas are now experiencing a chronic lack of teachers.  Prospective teachers are taking one look at the current state of educational opportunities and are just turning and walking away, shaking their heads in shocked astonishment.

   It is one thing to provide ELL resources to schools, to promote ELL best practices, to offer incentives for districts that are ably moving forward, and/or to create demonstration schools as models for success.  However, Arizona is doing little of that.  Instead, it is dictating a time segment of every day for an ELL pullout program.  And it is not just for one period per day; not just two or three periods per day.  It is for four periods a day, at least half a school day for most public schools.

   A personal experience here:  I spent three years obtaining the 26 credits- nine courses- necessary for an English as a Second Language (ESL) endorsement on my teaching certificate, all while working full-time in the classroom.  It was a lot of work, costing hundreds of dollars, but I proved I was able to succeed in an ESL classroom.  Now, I am being told that all the coursework and years of experience count for nothing.  My ELL students will be pulled out of my classrooms, separated from their classmates, preventing my chance to teach to them, preventing  their chance to learn from me, creating likely social divisions and other stigmas within the student body, and potentially shattering the entire community as a result.

   Is there a more pertinent example of cultural genocide than that?  Similar effects were the results of the boarding school days of time gone past.

   Young people suffer compulsory education during school, then grow up to find themselves lost upon graduation.  Human vices prevail for far too long and for far too many people in a shattered community.  Elders want to help, but the children are all herded into schools, sequestered within a permanent soft lockdown environment, mostly inaccessible to their own community during school hours.  People are dying to share their years of accumulated wisdom with the children, but with rare exceptions are being prevented from doing so in any kind of structured way within the school system.  Then along comes another state and federal mandate that monopolizes the available time in a child’s day and narrowly restricts what can be taught, how it is to be taught, who can teach it, and what defines success.

   In some contexts the label ELL is a sign of a language deficiency in a child.  However, in a Native culture, and in other contexts, ELL is an indication of hope that a child is still being raised in a strong, Native cultural environment.  Laws mandating fixed hours of ELL instruction are crushing that hope, as if grinding Native cultural aspirations under the heels of jackbooted thugs, more interested in producing compliant workers serving powerful moneyed interests rather than informed citizens capable of succeeding in life, and making valuable contributions to their own communities.

   Those who would put their ideology over others are practicing a modern version of Manifest Destiny.  This is what is going on in public schools in Native communities.  Indigenous languages are being lost at an alarming rate.  Native people do not wish to lose their language.  When language is lost, cultural practices and traditions follow.  Native people want to retain their culture, not lose it.

   As a teacher, I have met with hundreds of parents, the overwhelming majority of who are Native people.  Did any of our legislators even attempt to listen to these parents as they were writing this ELL law?  I can say with complete confidence that these parents all want their child to succeed, whether in their own community, or somewhere else in the “culturally foreign” world.  In fact, they want both.  Instead, they are continually facing hubris-saturated legislated opposition to their legitimate wishes.

   What the Arizona legislature fails to realize is just how pathetic the State’s school system is in the eyes of not only these parents, but also in the eyes of educators everywhere.  They fail to realize the consequences of their education legislation in terms of financial cost as well as social cost.  The culturally oppressive mandates of the Arizona legislature serve to reinforce the imperialistic roots of the English-speaking power elite in this state.  The reasoning for English-only laws and ELL rules in the classrooms falters in the presence of best practices, further reinforcing its racist nature.  Whenever the spectre of racism is invoked, policymakers vehemently deny it is the motivation behind their policies.  Yet to an oppressed culture, there is little difference between overt racism and the de facto racism these policies engender.

   And make no mistake, ELL policies that monopolize the time children must spend learning English only are culturally invasive, by definition.  It is one thing when an invasive plant or animal (think zebra mussel) takes over a piece of the natural landscape.  But humans are supposed to be able to do better.  History is full of examples of when people do better.  Sadly, this is not one of those times.  The rationale of Manifest Destiny looms again, conveniently obscuring a gross violation of the civil rights of an oppressed people.  In the face of historical facts, how can anyone be okay with that?

   Where is the data that even hints that the Arizona ELL laws are anything but a miserly, money-saving response to the Flores decision (pdf)?  How cynically unfair is the attitude behind legislation that sells out Dine’ and other cultures just to save a buck, and then congratulates itself for being so thrifty!  There are certainly plenty reasons to be thrifty- it is a virtue, after all- but the real truth is that per pupil costs in Arizona (pdf) reflect more than thriftiness.  Per pupil costs in Arizona sadly also reflect a violation of civil rights of minorities, as shown through the ELL laws.

   To whomever asserts that this is a debatable issue, all I can ask is since when are civil rights in the US a debatable issue?

   For the past 13 years, I have had the honor to live and teach in Navajoland.  It is a responsibility that I do not take lightly.  The patience of the people helped me to understand their culture, their community, their hopes and dreams, as well as their expectations for me as a teacher.  The people of Navajoland do not expect me to replace their culture with my own, although they do expect me to prepare their children to participate in the greater (though not necessarily better) society.  There is a difference.  An educational policy that dictates to a community how much time every day is spent in an ELL pullout program is an example of the former.  It not only elbows out community standards, it presumes to judge the community’s culture on that basis.  This is prejudice.  Again, the Dine’ people have acknowledged, all the way back to the days of Manuelito and Barboncito, the importance of public education for their children.  In Navajo culture, prejudice is disrespectful.  What is it today in the greater society of Arizona?

   Why is disrespect for Native cultures considered a necessary evil in today’s society, as it was in the boarding school days?  How much longer must we labor under the philosophy of “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”, that was so zealously followed in the past that entire tribal cultures were destroyed in the process?  Make no mistake about it:  Such an attitude is not only disrespectful, it is genocidal.  This is the shameful legacy we Americans must endure, but surely not prolong.  To follow such a policy toward Native people, and then be in denial about its racist and prejudicial basis bespeaks of indifference, uncaring, cynicism, and disrespect that is hardly any more virtuous than the overt racism of an earlier time.  It is still wrong, and it is astonishing to me how the the ELL policies that are an outgrowth of this attitude(pdf)” became law in this, the twenty-first century.

   If, in fact, the Arizona legislature is sincere about supporting English education in public schools, they would assign their aides the task of reviewing and summarizing for them the professional literature on ELL best practices.  They would establish their own set of standards concerning bills that would correctly address civil rights issues in the lawmaking process.  They would stop calling their lack of fiscal support for public education a virtue, and they would learn to work with Native, and other minority, cultures in a way that benefits all, rather than solely the business community’s need for cheap, urban labor.

More ranting here.

Attempted Encroachment on the Medicine Bluffs

( – promoted by navajo)

I guess I always thought that at least the Medicine Bluffs would be safe from development. In fact, I just told someone today that it probably would be, since it is on an Army Base.


A federal judge has blocked the U.S. Army from starting a construction project at Fort Sill in Oklahoma out of concern for the religious rights of the Comanche Nation.

The tribe says it wasn’t consulted about the development of a training service center near the foot of Medicine Bluffs, a sacred site at Fort Sill. Work was scheduled to begin on Monday until Judge Timothy D. DeGiusti issued a temporary restraining order.

“The court finds that, given the nature of the interests which plaintiffs in this case seek to protect, irreparable harm will result if the construction project commences,” DeGiusti wrote in the five-page order.

I was wrong.

The rest is just a repost. I’m stunned.

The Medicine Bluffs are very sacred to me personally, and I want to share the feeling of awe, mystery, and power that I get whenever I have been there with very few words, letting the Medicine Bluffs and its history speak for itself.

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This unique landmark at the eastern end of the Wichita Mountains was noted, described, and explored by all early expeditions and was held in deep reverence by the Indian tribes of this area from time immemorial . The four contiguous bluffs form a picturesque crescent a mile in length on the south side of Medicine Bluff Creek, a tributary of Cache Creek and Red River; it is evidently the result of a ancient cataclysm in which half of a rock dome was raised along a crack or fault.

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When Fort Sill was established in 1869, the Indians named it “The soldier house at Medicine Bluffs.” The site is rich in legends and history.

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You are facing the north side of Bluff No. 3, which consists of a sheer cliff 310 feet high, rising abruptly from the creek. A rock cairn erected by medicine men on its summit was still standing when Fort Sill was founded. Here the sick were brought to be healed or disposed of by the Great Spirit, young braves fasted in lonely vigils seeking visions of the supernatural, and warriors presented their shields to the rising sun for power.

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Legends say that this was also a famous place for Indian suicides. The huge fissure between No. 2 and 3 was known as the “Medicine Man’s Walk.”

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From The Spirit of Goyathlay (“one who yawns”), or Geronimo

When we speculated in print on why our soldiers use the name (“Geronimo!”)
of a dead Apache chieftain (no, Geronimo was a medicine man, seer, and intellectual leader) for their slogan, several alumni of airborne regiments reported stories of its origin. A plausible one came from Arthur A. Manion. “At Fort Sill, Oklahoma,” he wrote, “a series of rather steep hills, called, I believe, Medicine Bluffs, was pointed out to all new arrivals. It was said that one day Geronimo, with the army in hot pursuit, made a leap on horseback down an almost vertical cliff a feat that the posse could not duplicate. The legend continues that in the midst of this jump to freedom he gave out the bloodcurdling cry of “Geronimo-o-o!”
Hence the practice adopted by our paratroopers. I hope this helps. It’s at least colorful, if not authentic.”

I tried to imagine where he escaped at –

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Who knows but him?

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And the clouds, the wind, and the moon.

Bad News about Bear Butte

( – promoted by navajo)

“We continue to believe that someone important someplace cares and will do something before our situation becomes impossible.” Fools Crow from “Fools Crow,” by Thomas E. Mails. p. 217

It’s gone from bad,

Please forward in its entirety.

Press release

Corporate America ~vs~ Sacred Sites

Decision on Bear Butte issue 7-1-08

written by: Tamra Brennan

On July 1st, 2008 the Meade County Commissioners voted 3 – 2 to approve Jay Allen’s liquor license, for the Broken Spoke Campground located at Bear Butte.

There were two separate issues discussed regarding liquor license applications. The initial license for Jay Allen, which was revoked on December 5, 2007, appealed in January, then remanded back to the Meade County Commissioners by Judge Bastian on April 14, 2008. Meade County Commissioners appealed the judges decision, in June the South Dakota Supreme Court, denied the appeal, again sending it back to Meade County Commissioners.

to worse.

The second issue was the new liquor license application filed by David Shoe, General Manager for the new investors Target Logistics, Broken Spoke Campground LLC.

Target Logistics has paid off all of Jay Allen’s outstanding debts for Broken Spoke Campground, LLC with the exception of one that is currently in litigation. They have dumped hundreds of thousands of dollars, if not more, into this place already. Jim Seward attorney for Target Logistics also stated that Jay Allen still owns 30% of the stock, which contradicts everything that they have testified to previously, which was that Jay Allen is no longer involved. These people change their story at every hearing.

Target Logistics Corporation showed up at the hearing with 12-15 suits, including the CEO, various attorneys and military personnel. They spent a hour of the hearing testifying about military issues, and praising David Shoe, since he was previously involved in Blackwater, had been in Afganstitan and Iraq and apparently has secret service clearance, even today. They actually brought previous military personnel here to testify on behalf of David Shoe’s character, for a liquor license at a bar located at Bear Butte.

They used the war, they used the military service to gain sympathy and support from the Meade County Commissioners, to acquire the license.

Does anyone see the irony here? Can someone please explain what the military has to do with a bar, at a sacred site and what they are doing here?

The supporters for the Bear Butte issue were sitting listening to this testimony, wondering what any of this had to do, with Meade County and a bar at Bear Butte?

Several people stood up and questioned these statements and motives.

Jack Doyle, a local Meade County resident continually testifies against our side, and always includes disgusting and racist comments, stated “Indians do not own Bear Butte mountain, they are their as guests, if its not suitable for them they can go somewhere else.”

Another local, life long resident and Bear Butte supporter stood up and addressed the Commissioners and Target Logistics, stated she felt that Target Logistics was making a bad business decision, and they obviously had not done a business marketing analysis, that there have been two local campgrounds go bankrupt over this past two years, maybe they should go invest in one of the bankrupt campgrounds, there is one available in Whitewood. She received a huge applaud from the Bear Butte supporters.

I did record the hearing and will be cutting it down, it’s an hour and a half, once I get that done, I will be posting it on our new blog talk radio show. It should be up within the next day. I will send out a link, once it is up and running.

It will also be posted on our website


Because it was the appealed license that was approved, I am going to be doing some checking and see what actions, if any, that we can take next to appeal this decision.

Needless to say, this is simply another case of Corporate America ~vs~ Native American people and sacred sites, and we lost, yet again.

In peace & solidarity,


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“Our sacred lands are all that remain keeping us connected to our place on Mother Earth, to our spirituality, our heritage and our lands; what’s left of them. If they take it all away, what will remain except a vague memory of a past so forgotten?”

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Also, join our yahoo group at Protecting our Ancestors & Sacred Sites


Two things stand out. The ignorance with racism,

Jack Doyle, a local Meade County resident continually testifies against our side, and always includes disgusting and racist comments, stated “Indians do not own Bear Butte mountain, they are their as guests, if its not suitable for them they can go somewhere else.”

and the fact they “used the military service to gain sympathy and support from the Meade County Commissioners, to acquire the license.”

Target Logistics Corporation showed up at the hearing with 12-15 suits, including the CEO, various attorneys and military personnel. They spent a hour of the hearing testifying about military issues, and praising David Shoe, since he was previously involved in Blackwater, had been in Afganstitan and Iraq and apparently has secret service clearance, even today. They actually brought previous military personnel here to testify on behalf of David Shoe’s character, for a liquor license at a bar located at Bear Butte.

They used the war; they used the military service to gain sympathy and support from the Meade County Commissioners, to acquire the license.

Does anyone see the irony here? Can someone please explain what the military has to do with a bar, at a sacred site and what they are doing here?

Racism and anti -Indian sentiments are a foregone conclusion, they allow the thieves to justify what they’re doing. But as for “what the military has to do with a bar, at a sacred site and what they are doing here?” It’s probably, you know, a secret.

Top Secret


(Updated) Modernized Manifest Destiny, “Ontario pulls out of Caledonia talks”

( – promoted by navajo)

(Correction: it was/is an American developer, not an American company. Plus, a new character)

I think this is a case in point of why the Neoconservative forces in the U.S. and in Canada de-affirmed the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Final update is at the end.

Manifest Destiny is a thing of the past, but its philosophy didn’t die with the forced relocations. The American company developer Henco attempted to encroach on Native lands in 2006, and I speculate that George W. Bush’s having signed NAFTA treaties which eroded some limits on U.S trade borders enabled Henco to proceed to Canada and attempt stealing Native soil from Six Nations. While it wears only a shadow in sound comparison to the Seige of Wounded Knee 1973, (I think it’s more so comparable now than before; however, I don’t have the expertise about treaties and prior circumstances in Canada to say how much more or less it is. There was a treaty violation here. I’m not sure it’s my place to say more in general) it bears valid comparison in the display of overt racism against the First Nations.

Krisztina Kun, a staff member at SFPIRG, and eyewitness to the standoff remarked that the blockade was characterized just as much by racial tension as it was by disputes over land ownership.

Crossposted at Progressive Historians

The American Developer Henco attempted to acquire land in Canada by deceptive means.

“Henco Industries, the developer that is squatting on our land, went to court and got an injunction. Judge David Marshall of the Ontario Provincial Court thought he had a fool proof plan to get rid of the people protesting Ontario’s persistent violation of Six Nations Territory. On March 16 (2006) he issued a strange convoluted order. He announced that at 2:00 on Wednesday, March 22nd, the Ontario Provincial Police OPP would come in. They would read the order to us. Anyone who didn’t leave immediately would be arrested and taken to the police station where they would be photographed, fingerprinted and released. He also ordered that anyone who returned would be charged and placed on probation for a year. The trouble is he seemed to have forgotten about due process and the honor of the Crown. He didn’t mention a hearing or a trial. Neither Ontario nor Henco was required to prove they owned the land in question. This may have something to do with the report that Judge Marshall and the Crown Prosecutor, Owen Young, both claim parts of our land themselves.”

So, in addition to Henco deceptively trying to steal Six Nations Territory; the Judge and Crown Prosecuter were as well. This led to a huge protest, where Six Nations came together to stand against the attempted theft of their land by Henco, Marshall, and Young.

In the present case, protest was triggered by the construction of a massive housing subdivision in Caledonia, the Douglas Creek Estates (Henco Industries), of which 10 out of a projected 600 houses have been built. A number of clan mothers and other traditional authorities, based in the confederacy, along with young leaders, sought to challenge a new reality that would seem to finalize a process of encroachment over one of several contested tracts. They called for an encampment on the land, a call accompanied by intense emotion among Indian people of all political persuasions; and many have responded, including warrior groups from reservations across the Northeast.

I heard the radio plea for help from the clan mothers by web surfing, relatively soon after it occurred. Their calls had the sense of urgency that stopped everything else if it was heard. That link was taken down; however, there’s a lot of video footage here:

The Autonomy & Solidarity website is produced and maintained by a network of anti-capitalists who believe that revolutionary transformation will come from the self organization of workers and oppressed people.

  The government knew that the Douglas Creek Estates (DCE) lands were contested when it allowed them to be sold. If the government had developed a comprehensive land claims settlement process and had negotiated in good faith with Six Nations from the start, this problem would never have taken the form it has.
People from Six Nations occupied the Douglas Creek Estates to stop a housing development from being built on contested land. Now that the situation has been escalated, non-natives on and off the Haldimand tract can best resolve this issue by pressuring the Canadian government to establish a fair and comprehensive settlement of all outstanding land claims with Six Nations.

I heard someone say on a video clip that I can’t find again, “The military took care of THEM then; let the military take care of THEM now,” or words to that effect. His racist remarks reminded me of the signs that used to say No Indians Allowed!

The following is no longer up on the web, either. Therefore, it really wasn’t about stealing land to build a Casino after the attempted encroachment and land theft. The reason I sat that, is companies like Henco use land for sacred or religious purposes.

Court rules in favour of casino project

Last updated Jun 23 2006 01:36 PM MDT
CBC News

A court ruling allows the Stoney Nakoda First Nation to begin construction of a casino and hotel west of Calgary.
The court ruling Wednesday has likely put an end to demonstrations by three elders of the band who claimed they owned the land, which they said was sacred and used for ceremonies.
Construction on the casino and hotel development was supposed to start last summer, but the elder women and their families refused to move for survey and construction workers.

Remember all the debates about NAFTA, the “North American Union,” NASCO, and all that fun stuff?

December 21, 2001
The National Association of Independent Insurers (NAII) is pleased that HR 2299, the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002 recently signed by President Bush provides funding to establish the safety mandates now required for Mexican trucks to roll under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Maybe all of that opened a door for Henco to walk onto Six Nations’ Territory.

The agreement will eventually eliminate tariffs currently imposed on US sales in Central America, open up the market for US goods and services and make investment easier.
While it is expected to have limited economic impact for the US, the Bush administration sees the pact as an important element in its mission to spread democracy and combat terror.
Along with the six new nations within Cafta – and the Nafta agreement with Canada and Mexico – the US currently has free-trade agreements with Australia, Chile, Singapore, Jordan and Israel.


To conclude, there’s just one element missing from “Modernized Manifest Destiny” in order for this to be complete: the suppressing and oppressive religious element.


Evangelists divide Huichol communities, cause conflict

Thirteen families have recently moved into Emmanuel after being forcibly run out of the Huichol pueblo of Santa Catarina. Their story is increasingly common across Latin America, where Native pueblos have been targeted for conversion by evangelical sects -and are pushing back with force.

Consisting of a half-dozen small duplexes of brick and yellow stucco, Emmanuel was paid for by state authorities and project residents, with help from a church in nearby Zacatecas. Religious supporters from Minnesota and New York state have come south to help build the cement block church under construction.

The Religious Right, the present generation of philosophical Puritanical descent is still trying to convert, assimilate, and suppress the “savages” and the pagans in my view.
Remind me of the Religious Right’s intentions of philosophical Puritanical descent(Thankyou stormbear).


Ontario pulls out of Caledonia talks

A violent confrontation last week in Caledonia, Ont., has prompted the Ontario to pull out of this week’s scheduled negotiations with Six Nations and the federal government.

“Ontario considers last week’s confrontation unacceptable,” Lars Eedy, spokesman for the provincial aboriginal affairs ministry, said Tuesday in a release. “Violence is never a solution to any dispute.”

Developer Sam Gualtieri was hospitalized with face and head injuries Sept. 13 after confronting a group of protesters in one of two houses on the Stirling Street subdivision he is building for his daughters.

I said the following in My Journey To Wounded Knee

I believe this is a core issue of the Siege of Wounded Knee 1973:

Self-defense Summary: Should the law punish those who use force to defend themselves against criminal acts?

To conclude, allow me to explain with an analogy from my personal experience. I had a lawnmower that I was proud of, because I bought it when I first bought my own house. But, one day I heard it being dragged off my back porch after hearing the chain loosened. I put down my book and looked on my back porch; it was gone. I ran to find it, imagining where the thief would have taken it. I found him pulling it in broad daylight down the street, while I was running. Now, I’m not foolish. I looked to see if he had any weapons or anything, deciding I could go for his knees first if he refused to return it. I yelled about 15 yards away from him after looking for possible witnesses, “Hey! You know, it’s funny…that looks exactly like the lawn mower that was just on my back porch.” “Oh, is it?” He said. He continued, “I think it is.” “You don’t mind if I take that back from you, now do you?” I angrily said. “Not at all,” he replied. I said, “I didn’t think so,” while I grabbed it back from him and stomped back home. Funny thing is, the police said I was foolish and they couldn’t do anything, since I got my lawnmower back. Did I have a right to do what I did? What if he had tried to come into my home and I used deadly force? I don’t own a weapon, but the kitchen is very close by.

So, the Neoconservative forces in the U.S. and in Canada who de-affirmed the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples severely “mind” when those Indigenous Peoples try to keep the land that was stolen and promised to be returned one aloof day. If they kept their promises today – there wouldn’t be these types of conflicts.

A double standard is operating. When the thirteen “United Colonies” fought for Independence even before the U.S. became a country from Great Britain, it was a fight for Independence, but when Indigenous Peoples fight and strive for theirs…it’s impeding progress, or hubris to that effect. 

I am not making a judgment as to what First Nations should do or should not have done; however, I would like to offer some general information based on some historical analysis. If one warrior had been present at the Sand Creek Massacre, I dare say it would not have been accurately reclassified from a “battle.” Everyone knows that Washita was a massacre; it just hasn’t been reclassified as such. Why? Because of the eleven warriors who defended themselves and their people, who weren’t normally at Black Kettle’s village (as the rationalization seems to go). So, the U.S. government continued to punish commit genocide against the American Indian until the last Massacre at Wounded Knee.

The feelings and actions were totally justified after the Sand Creek Massacre.

Dee Brown. “Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee.” p. 94:

“The white man has taken our country, killed all of our children. Now no peace. We want to go meet our families in the spirit land. We loved the whites until we found out they lied to us, and robbed us of what we had. We have raised the battle ax until death.”(1)

And, one thing they did not have then that is available now is instant communication. There is the internet, there are telephones, there are lobbying groups that lobby for American Indian vital issues. I am not pretending to have the answer, but what I do know are two things.

First, regardless of whether or not peaceful negations were strived for or defensive war was used, they were going to steal the land and exterminate them regardless.  Trusting was a great liability. Also, Geronimo considered surrendering a great mistake. Second, is if the answer is not found and implemented soon and very soon indeed, George W. Bush and the Neoconservative forces in the U.S. and in Canada who de-affirmed the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples are going to finish what Custer started in the sacred Black Hills.

When does it end?

“Judge denies Stay”
“Drilling to continue”

Powertech, a Canadian mining company, began drilling uranium exploratory wells in the Dewey Burdock area northwest of Edgemont a few weeks despite the approval of their permit being appealed in court.

Black Hills Announces Additional Texas Pipeline Acquisition

Rapid City, SD – Black Hills Energy, Inc., the integrated energy subsidiary of Black Hills Corporation today announced the purchase of the assets of the Kilgore to Houston Pipeline System from Equilon Pipeline Company, LLC. The pipeline will be operated by the Company’s Houston-based oil pipeline and transportation company, Black Hills Operating Company, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Black Hills Energy Resources, Inc.

The Kilgore pipeline transports crude oil from the Kilgore, TX region south to Houston, TX, which is the transfer point to connecting carriers via the Oiltanking Houston terminal facilities. The 10-inch pipeline is approximately 190 miles long and has a capacity of approximately 35,000 barrels per day for sweet and 23,000 barrels per day for sour type crude oil. In addition, the Kilgore system has approximately 400,000 barrels of crude oil storage at Kilgore and 375,000 barrels of storage at the Texoma Tank Farm located in Longview, TX. These storage facilities will eventually be interchangeable between the two tank farms.


The Keystone Oil Pipeline (Keystone) is a proposed 2,969 kilometre (1,845 mile) pipeline with an initial nominal capacity to transport approximately 435,000 barrels per day of crude oil from Hardisty, Alberta, to U.S. Midwest markets at Wood River and Patoka, Illinois.

– snip –

The commercial commitments support the expansion of the Keystone Pipeline to a nominal capacity of approximately 590,000 barrels per day and will involve the construction of a 473-kilometre (294-mile) extension of the U.S. portion of the pipeline from the Nebraska/Kansas border to a hub near Cushing, Oklahoma. The expansion and extension target in-service date is fourth quarter 2010.

The total length of the proposed Keystone Pipeline is 1,845 miles (2,969 kilometres).
o Approximately 1,078 miles (1,735 kilometres) of new pipeline will be constructed in the U.S.
o The Canadian portion of the proposed project includes the construction of approximately 230 miles (370 kilometres) of new pipeline and the conversion of approximately 537 miles (864 kilometres) of existing TransCanada pipeline from natural gas to crude oil transmission.

When does it end?

Add to all of that the fact that theCanadian company has the legal right to condemn land for a crude-oil pipeline through the eastern part of the state (South Dakota in this case) – and presto!

Now you know why the Neoconservative forces in the U.S. and in Canada who de-affirmed the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples didn’t want to sign the Declaration.

If I remember correctly, “Vaulting ambition” was Macbeth’s downfall.

Macbeth’s castle. Hautboys and torches.

That tears shall drown the wind. I have no spur

To prick the sides of my intent, but only

Vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself

And falls on the other.

Enough said.